Pericles' Funeral Oration 伯利克里的国殇演说辞

Most of those who have spoken here before me have commended the lawgiver who added this oration to our other funeral customs. It seemed to them a worthy thing that such an honor should be given at their burial to the dead who have fallen on the field of battle. But I should have preferred that, when men's deeds have been brave, they should be honored in deed only, and with such an honor as this public funeral, which you are now witnessing. Then the reputation of many would not have been imperiled on the eloquence or want of eloquence of one, and their virtues believed or not as he spoke well or ill. For it is difficult to say neither too little nor too much; and even moderation is apt not to give the impression of truthfulness. The friend of the dead who knows the facts is likely to think that the words of the speaker fall short of his knowledge and of his wishes; another who is not so well informed, when he hears of anything which surpasses his own powers, will be envious and will suspect exaggeration. Mankind are tolerant of the praises of others so long as each hearer thinks that he can do as well or nearly as well himself, but, when the speaker rises above him, jealousy is aroused and he begins to be incredulous. However, since our ancestors have set the seal of their approval upon the practice, I must obey, and to the utmost of my power shall endeavor to satisfy the wishes and beliefs of all who hear me.

I will speak first of our ancestors, for it is right and seemly that now, when we are lamenting the dead, a tribute should be paid to their memory. There has never been a time when they did not inhabit this land, which by their valor they will have handed down from generation to generation, and we have received from them a free state. But if they were worthy of praise, still more were our fathers, who added to their inheritance, and after many a struggle transmitted to us their sons this great empire. And we ourselves assembled here today, who are still most of us in the vigor of life, have carried the work of improvement further, and have richly endowed our city with all things, so that she is sufficient for herself both in peace and war. Of the military exploits by which our various possessions were acquired, or of the energy with which we or our fathers drove back the tide of war, Hellenic or Barbarian, I will not speak; for the tale would be long and is familiar to you. But before I praise the dead, I should like to point out by what principles of action we rose ~ to power, and under what institutions and through what manner of life our empire became great. For I conceive that such thoughts are not unsuited to the occasion, and that this numerous assembly of citizens and strangers may profitably listen to them.

Our form of government does not enter into rivalry with the institutions of others. Our government does not copy our neighbors', but is an example to them. It is true that we are called a democracy, for the administration is in the hands of the many and not of the few. But while there exists equal justice to all and alike in their private disputes, the claim of excellence is also recognized; and when a citizen is in any way distinguished, he is preferred to the public service, not as a matter of privilege, but as the reward of merit. Neither is poverty an obstacle, but a man may benefit his country whatever the obscurity of his condition. There is no exclusiveness in our public life, and in our private business we are not suspicious of one another, nor angry with our neighbor if he does what he likes; we do not put on sour looks at him which, though harmless, are not pleasant. While we are thus unconstrained in our private business, a spirit of reverence pervades our public acts; we are prevented from doing wrong by respect for the authorities and for the laws, having a particular regard to those which are ordained for the protection of the injured as well as those unwritten laws which bring upon the transgressor of them the reprobation of the general sentiment.

And we have not forgotten to provide for our weary spirits many relaxations from toil; we have regular games and sacrifices throughout the year; our homes are beautiful and elegant; and the delight which we daily feel in all these things helps to banish sorrow. Because of the greatness of our city the fruits of the whole earth flow in upon us; so that we enjoy the goods of other countries as freely as our own.

Then, again, our military training is in many respects superior to that of our adversaries. Our city is thrown open to the world, though and we never expel a foreigner and prevent him from seeing or learning anything of which the secret if revealed to an enemy might profit him. We rely not upon management or trickery, but upon our own hearts and hands. And in the matter of education, whereas they from early youth are always undergoing laborious exercises which are to make them brave, we live at ease, and yet are equally ready to face the perils which they face. And here is the proof: The Lacedaemonians come into Athenian territory not by themselves, but with their whole confederacy following; we go alone into a neighbor's country; and although our opponents are fighting for their homes and we on a foreign soil, we have seldom any difficulty in overcoming them. Our enemies have never yet felt our united strength, the care of a navy divides our attention, and on land we are obliged to send our own citizens everywhere. But they, if they meet and defeat a part of our army, are as proud as if they had routed us all, and when defeated they pretend to have been vanquished by us all.

If then we prefer to meet danger with a light heart but without laborious training, and with a courage which is gained by habit and not enforced by law, are we not greatly the better for it? Since we do not anticipate the pain, although, when the hour comes, we can be as brave as those who never allow themselves to rest; thus our city is equally admirable in peace and in war. For we are lovers of the beautiful in our tastes and our strength lies, in our opinion, not in deliberation and discussion, but that knowledge which is gained by discussion preparatory to action. For we have a peculiar power of thinking before we act, and of acting, too, whereas other men are courageous from ignorance but hesitate upon reflection. And they are surely to be esteemed the bravest spirits who, having the clearest sense both of the pains and pleasures of life, do not on that account shrink from danger. In doing good, again, we are unlike others; we make our friends by conferring, not by receiving favors. Now he who confers a favor is the firmer friend, because he would rather by kindness keep alive the memory of an obligation; but the recipient is colder in his feelings, because he knows that in requiting another's generosity he will not be winning gratitude but only paying a debt. We alone do good to our neighbors not upon a calculation of interest, but in the confidence of freedom and in a frank and fearless spirit. To sum up: I say that Athens is the school of Hellas, and that the individual Athenian in his own person seems to have the power of adapting himself to the most varied forms of action with the utmost versatility and grace. This is no passing and idle word, but truth and fact; and the assertion is verified by the position to which these qualities have raised the state. For in the hour of trial Athens alone among her contemporaries is superior to the report of her. No enemy who comes against her is indignant at the reverses which he sustains at the hands of such a city; no subject complains that his masters are unworthy of him. And we shall assuredly not be without witnesses; there are mighty monuments of our power which will make us the wonder of this and of succeeding ages; we shall not need the praises of Homer or of any other panegyrist whose poetry may please for the moment, although his representation of the facts will not bear the light of day. For we have compelled every land and every sea to open a path for our valor, and have everywhere planted eternal memorials of our friendship and of our enmity. Such is the city for whose sake these men nobly fought and died; they could not bear the thought that she might be taken from them; and every one of us who survive should gladly toil on her behalf.

I have dwelt upon the greatness of Athens because I want to show you that we are contending for a higher prize than those who enjoy none of these privileges, and to establish by manifest proof the merit of these men whom I am now commemorating. Their loftiest praise has been already spoken. For in magnifying the city I have magnified them, and men like them whose virtues made her glorious. And of how few Hellenes can it be said as of them, that their deeds when weighed in the balance have been found equal to their fame! I believe that a death such as theirs has been the true measure of a man's worth; it may be the first revelation of his virtues, but is at any rate their final seal. For even those who come short in other ways may justly plead the valor with which they have fought for their country; they have blotted out the evil with the good, and have benefited the state more by their public services than they have injured her by their private actions. None of these men were enervated by wealth or hesitated to resign the pleasures of life; none of them put off the evil day in the hope, natural to poverty, that a man, though poor, may one day become rich. But, deeming that the punishment of their enemies was sweeter than any of these things, and that they could fall in no nobler cause, they determined at the hazard of their lives to be honorably avenged, and to leave the rest. They resigned to hope their unknown chance of happiness; but in the face of death they resolved to rely upon themselves alone. And when the moment came they were minded to resist and suffer, rather than to fly and save their lives; they ran away from the word of dishonor, but on the battlefield their feet stood fast, and in an instant, at the height of their fortune, they passed away from the scene, not of their fear, but of their glory.

Such was the end of these men; they were worthy of Athens, and the living need not desire to have a more heroic spirit, although they may pray for a less fatal issue. The value of such a spirit is not to be expressed in words. Any one can discourse to you for ever about the advantages of a brave defense, which you know already. But instead of listening to him I would have you day by day fix your eyes upon the greatness of Athens, until you become filled with the love of her; and when you are impressed by the spectacle of her glory, reflect that this empire has been acquired by men who knew their duty and had the courage to do it, who in the hour of conflict had the fear of dishonor always present to them, and who, if ever they failed in an enterprise, would not allow their virtues to be lost to their country, but freely gave their lives to her as the fairest offering which they could present at her feast. The sacrifice which they collectively made was individually repaid to them; for they received again each one for himself a praise which grows not old, and the noblest of all tombs, I speak not of that in which their remains are laid, but of that in which their glory survives, and is proclaimed always and on every fitting occasion both in word and deed. For the whole earth is the tomb of famous men; not only are they commemorated by columns and inscriptions in their own country, but in foreign lands there dwells also an unwritten memorial of them, graven not on stone but in the hearts of men. Make them your examples, and, esteeming courage to be freedom and freedom to be happiness, do not weigh too nicely the perils of war. The unfortunate who has no hope of a change for the better has less reason to throw away his life than the prosperous who, if he survive, is always liable to a change for the worse, and to whom any accidental fall makes the most serious difference. To a man of spirit, cowardice and disaster coming together are far more bitter than death striking him unperceived at a time when he is full of courage and animated by the general hope.

Wherefore I do not now pity the parents of the dead who stand here; I would rather comfort them. You know that your dead have passed away amid manifold vicissitudes; and that they may be deemed fortunate who have gained their utmost honor, whether an honorable death like theirs, or an honorable sorrow like yours, and whose share of happiness has been so ordered that the term of their happiness is likewise the term of their life. I know how hard it is to make you feel this, when the good fortune of others will too often remind you of the gladness which once lightened your hearts. And sorrow is felt at the want of those blessings, not which a man never knew, but which were a part of his life before they were taken from him. Some of you are of an age at which they may hope to have other children, and they ought to bear their sorrow better; not only will the children who may hereafter be born make them forget their own lost ones, but the city will be doubly a gainer. She will not be left desolate, and she will be safer. For a man's counsel cannot have equal weight or worth, when he alone has no children to risk in the general danger. To those of you who have passed their prime, I say: "Congratulate yourselves that you have been happy during the greater part of your days; remember that your life of sorrow will not last long, and be comforted by the glory of those who are gone. For the love of honor alone is ever young, and not riches, as some say, but honor is the delight of men when they are old and useless.

To you who are the sons and brothers of the departed, I see that the struggle to emulate them will be an arduous one. For all men praise the dead, and, however preeminent your virtue may be, I do not say even to approach them, and avoid living their rivals and detractors, but when a man is out of the way, the honor and goodwill which he receives is unalloyed. And, if I am to speak of womanly virtues to those of you who will henceforth be widows, let me sum them up in one short admonition: To a woman not to show more weakness than is natural to her sex is a great glory, and not to be talked about for good or for evil among men.

I have paid the required tribute, in obedience to the law, making use of such fitting words as I had. The tribute of deeds has been paid in part; for the dead have them in deeds, and it remains only that their children should be maintained at the public charge until they are grown up: this is the solid prize with which, as with a garland, Athens crowns her sons living and dead, after a struggle like theirs. For where the rewards of virtue are greatest, there the noblest citizens are enlisted in the service of the state. And now, when you have duly lamented, every one his own dead, you may depart. 


伯利克里的国殇演说辞译文

在这里发表过葬礼演说的人,多半会赞扬当年将葬礼演说列为公葬典礼的组成部份的立法者。他们觉得能对阵亡将士发表演说,能有这份荣幸,是很可贵的事。我个人本来就觉得阵亡将士在行动中所体现的价值,应以实际的行动充分赞赏他们的荣誉,就如各位方才为举办这场国家葬礼所做的准备工作中所见一般。我个人一向希望众多勇者的声誉不会因为个别人士的说词而有所妨害、不至于因为闲言闲语而有所改变。如果演说者无法让听众相信他所说的是真情实事,他就很难说得恰如其份。一方面,熟悉亡者事迹的亲友会觉得这些发言还不如自己所知道的以及希望听到的多;另一方面,不熟悉状况的人听到自己力有未逮的功绩时,会嫉妒亡者、认为发言者的赞扬过甚其词。歌功颂德只有在一定限度内才能让人忍受,这个限度就是使听众相信所列举的事迹也是他们力所能及者;超出这个限度,就会引人嫉妒、怀疑了。不过,既然我们的祖先赞同建立这个制度,我就有义务遵守法律,尽我所能满足各方的期望与要求。

首先我要谈谈我们的祖先;在目前这种场合先提到他们的荣耀是公正而合宜之事。我们的祖先世世代代生活在这块土地上,由于他们的勇敢无畏,使这块土地至今仍能保持自由。如果说我们的祖先值得歌颂,那么我们的父辈受到赞誉就更是当之无愧。因为他们还为我们留下我们现在所拥有的国家,而他们能够把这个国家传给我们这一代,付出了惨痛付价。今天齐聚于此的人绝大多数正值盛年,我们几乎在每一方面都扩张了我们的版图,也从各个方面丰硕我们的实力,无论是在和平年代或战争时期,她都能仰仗自身的资源自给自足。有关我们用以取得现有势力的军事成就、我们或父辈们英勇击退希腊的,或希腊以外地区的入侵敌人的事迹,各位都已耳熟能详,容我不再多做评述。我要说的是,我们如何获致现今这样的地位?我们之所以日渐壮大是在何种政体下实现的?我们的国民习性又是如何造就的?我尝试解答这些问题之后,再歌颂阵亡将士。因为,我觉得这样的演说题材很适合目前的场合,对全体参与典礼的人员,不论是本国公民或非本国公民,都将有所帮助。

我们的宪政体制并未袭用任何邻近国家的法律,我们的宪法反而成为其他国家仿效的模板。我们的体制之所以称为“民主”,是因为国家是由多数人而非少数人所治理1。如我们都可看到,法律在解决私人纷争时,平等而公正的对待每一个人;在公共生活中,担任公共职务所优先考虑的是个人的才能,而不是他的群体地位(身份)、不是他属于何种阶层,任何人只要对国家有所贡献,绝不会因为贫穷而默默无闻。我们在政治生活中享有自由,日常生活亦是如是。当我们的邻居随其喜好行事、我行我素时,我们不会因此而感到不快,也不会相互猜忌、相互监视,更不会因此而怒目相向,尽管这样并不会给他们带来实际的伤害。我们在私人关系上宽容而自在,但是身为公民,我们恪遵法律2,因为我们敬畏权威和法律,使我们不但服从权威人士,也遵守法律,尤其是保护受害者的法律,不论是成文的法律或是未成文的规范,违犯这样的律则依然是公认的耻辱之举。

此外,我们也安排种种的娱乐活动,好让人们从劳作中恢复活力。我们整年地进行例行的竞技会和祭祀节庆活动;我们家里面有华丽而典雅的布置,赏心悦目、排遣阴郁。我们的国家积极有为,港口引进了全世界的产品,因此,雅典人享受其他地区的产品就如同享受本地的名产一般。

再来看看我们的国防政策,我们也和我们的敌人有所不同。我们的城市向全世界敞开怀抱;我们并不担心敌人会窥得那些从不隐藏的秘密,使我们蒙受损失,也从不以此为由,把前来寻求进步和猎奇的外国人驱逐出境。比较而言,我们不大依靠战备和谋略,而是信赖公民们与生俱来的爱国热忱和行动。在教育制度上,我们的对手由孩提时期就开始施予国民严苛的训练,以养成他们的勇猛气概;我们雅典人的生活尽管温文尔雅,却能像他们一样勇敢地面对任何战争危险。我举出一个事实就能证明这一点。这次,敌国入侵我们的领土并不是单独前来,而是伙同他们的联盟国齐聚而来;我们雅典人进攻某一邦的领土时却总是以自身之力完成的。虽然我们是在异地作战,他们是为保卫自己的家园而战,我们还是常常击败对手。任何与我们交战的敌手,其实从未遭遇过我们全部的兵力,因为我们不得不考虑我们的海上运输军力,也不得不分别派遣公民在陆地上执行许许多的任务;因此,他们与我们交战的只是某一支部队,但他们如果获胜,就自吹自擂,说他们击退我们全军,而如果他们战败了,便推说是被我们全国人民所击败。

我们宁可以轻松的心情而不是艰苦的训练应付危险;我们的勇气是在风俗习惯中自然养成的,而不是法律强制使然。我们因此具有双重优点:一来不必花费时间训练自己忍受尚未来临的痛苦,二来一旦真正遭遇这些痛苦时,我们的表现的果敢无畏仍不亚于那些经常受严苛训练的人。

当然,我们的国家值得赞美的优点不只这些而已。

我们热爱高贵典雅的事物,但并未因此而变得柔弱。我们以财富为可用之物,而非视之为炫耀。真正可耻的并不是贫穷之事本身,而是不与贫穷奋斗。我们的公职人员不会因为关注生计而忽略政治事务;一般公民虽经年累月忙于劳作,仍能公正裁断国家大事。因为我们雅典人与众不同,我们认为不关心公共事务的人并非欠缺雄心大志,而是一无用处。我们雅典人即使不是有创新之见的倡议者,也能对所有事务适当裁决。我们不会认为讨论是行动的障碍,真正的障碍是无知,为了消除无知,我们把事前的讨论看成是任何明智的行动所不可或缺的首要前提。此外,我们进行冒险行动之前或在行动之时,都能深思熟虑。其他人的勇猛往往初兴于无知,一旦再思便心生疑惧。真正的勇者,毫无疑问的,应该属于能明辨人生患难与幸福之别而又能勇往直前,面对危难时义无反顾、绝不退缩的人。

我们的慷慨大方也与众不同。我们结交朋友旨在施惠于人,而非为占得便宜。当然,施惠于人者固可以使双方成为可靠的朋友,他们持续表示友善也使受惠者永远怀抱感激之情。不过,如果受惠者感情上欠缺相当的热忱,他们的回报就如还债一般,而非慷慨馈赠。只有我们雅典人在施惠于人时从不计较利弊得失,纯粹出于慷慨大度和勇敢无畏的信念。

总而言之,我们国家是全希腊的学习场所。我觉得世界上没有一个地方能像雅典这样,在个人生活的许多方面这般独立自主、温文儒雅而有多才多艺。这并非在此场合中妄自吹嘘,而是实实在在的事实,我们国家的势力就是靠这些特性而得来的。现今的国家中,唯有雅典面对考验时能证明她的伟大之实远高于其声名;只有以雅典为对手时,入侵的敌人不以战败为耻,战败国的臣民也不会因此抱怨其统治者无能失格。我们赢得世人赞叹,不只现付,后世亦然,因为我们的强大势力虽未留下证人,但遗留下丰硕的纪念品。我们无需荷马吟颂赞歌,也不需要任何人的歌颂,因为他们的歌颂只能使我们陶醉一时,他们对于事迹的印象也不足以全盘反映事实真相。我们勇敢无畏地攻进每一片海洋、迈进每一块陆地,我们在各地所布施的恩德或带来的厄运,都是留给后世的不朽纪念。这就是雅典,就是这些人为她奋勇作战、慷慨捐躯的国家,因为他们一想到要脱离这个国家便会不寒而栗,他们的每一位后付子孙,都应该为此而准备忍受这一切的痛苦。

我谈论我们国家的特性的话的确说得多了点,但那是因为我想向众位说明:我们的奋斗目标,比起不具备我们这些特性的人所追求的目标来说,要远大得多;我也才会用这些真实的事证表达对于阵亡将士的感怀。现在,歌颂阵亡将士的最重要部分我已经说完了;我已经赞颂了雅典、赞颂了使我们国家壮盛的这些人士和效法他们的人的英雄气概。各位会发现,他们的确不同于其他大多数的希腊人,他们的功绩使他们对享有的声名当之无愧。在我看来,他们这样的谢幕不论是品行的初次表现,还是最后的证明,都衡量了他们的价值。平心而论,他们为祖国而战的坚定信念足可抵消个人在其他方面的缺陷,他们身为公民的贡献高于身为个体的祸害。这些人士当中,富者并未为了将来享受他的财富而变得怯懦,穷者也没有为了将来获得自由和富裕的生活而逃避眼前的危难。他们要的并不是个人的幸福,而是报复敌人。在他们眼中这是无上光荣的冒险,他们欣然决定参加复仇行动、坚信能够击溃敌人,而放弃了其他的一切。他们并未对难以确定的最后胜利寄予厚望,只在眼下面临的实际战斗中勇往直前、自信十足。因此,他们宁可在抵抗中牺牲,也不愿在屈服下苟且偷生。霎时之间,他们自命运的巅峰,而并非恐惧的极点,光荣至极地离开了我们,长辞于世。

这些人就这样牺牲了。他们无愧于他们的国家。各位这一群还活着的人虽可以祈求得到一个比较幸福的结局,在战场上仍必须要有坚定的决心。各位,我前面提到的一些与保卫国家有关的优良品行,不能只从字面上理解它们的意义就感满足,尽管演说者面对像现场这样积极活跃的听众时,照样可以就这些优点撰写出及其精彩的演说词。你们自己必须了解雅典的军事力量,并且时时关注雅典,直到心中洋溢着对她的热爱,然后,一旦你认识了她的一切伟大之处,你一定会想到,这些人之所以赢得这一切尊崇,是由于他们的勇敢精神、他们的责任感、他们在行动时拥有的一股强烈的荣誉感所致。你们也一定会领悟到:在冒险行动中,任何个人的失败都不会使他们觉得是国家使他们失去勇气,反而会尽其所能地奉献出最光荣的事物——他们毫无例外地奉献了他们最珍贵的生命,这使他们每个人都获得永垂不朽的声誉。至于坟墓,那不只是安葬遗骸的处所,更是留存他们的荣誉至高无上的圣地,将永远铭刻在人们的心目中,一有机会便会到此地缅怀他们的行径、他们的功勋。英雄们以整个大地当作他们的坟墓,甚至埋骨在遥远的他乡土地中,墓志铭并不是刻划在功劳柱上,而是以不成文的经书铭记在人的心灵中,成为每个人心中的圣地。这些人应该成为我们的榜样,他们认为幸福是自由的成果,而自由得自于勇敢,这使他们绝不在战争的危险面前有所退缩。这些毫不吝惜生命的人并不可悲,他并不指望事后会得到什么,一味保全自身生命结果说不定反而一无所有。他们都知道,任何意外的失败都将导致可怕的后果;但,可以肯定的是,对于个人的灵魂而言,由于怯懦而带来的堕落,比诸洋溢着活力与爱国情操时意外地战死沙场,不知悲惨几何?

因此,亡者的父母或许也在现场,我不想对他们表示怜悯之意,而是要安慰他们。我们都知道,人生的旅途满是不计其数的可能性,多的是哀伤和折磨,而如你们的孩子那样光荣地牺牲、致使你们带着荣耀去哀痛,才是真正的幸运。对他们而言,生命之旅等于幸福之旅是何其有幸。我知道这很难让你们接受,尤其是当你们看见别人欢乐时,也会想起往日曾有的欢乐,这些欢乐曾经使你们的心灵欣悦不已,也曾经是你们生命的一部份;的确,人不会因为他从来未享有的事物而悲伤,当惯有的生命喜悦远离时,你们也自会陷入无尽的哀伤与沉痛中。然而,你们之中有些人还属于适合生育的年纪,也许还想要生儿育女,悲苦也许不那么难以忍受;而后继的子女不仅仅能够使你们逐渐忘怀丧子之痛,也可立即充实国家的力量、保障国家安全,让雅典获得双重利益。公民如果没有子女作为他的风险的担保,他便无法做出公平而公正的决定,因而他的意见不能有和其他公民一样的价值和份量3。至于已过盛年的人,我只能对你们说:要为你们自己已能享受到生命中最美好的时光而感到庆幸,你们的悲伤不会太久长,要在短暂的人生余年里为你们逝去的孩子的光荣美名感到欣慰,因为只有对荣誉的热爱才是永恒的,让年迈的心灵得到快慰的不是如某些人所认为的是财富,而是荣耀。

对于你们之中身为亡者的儿子或兄弟们来说,我可预见到你们未来有一场艰辛的奋斗历程,因为效法亡者是一件难事。人过世的时候,人们总是颂扬他,纵然你(有生之年)的功绩卓越超群、品德卓绝,你仍会发觉你的荣誉不仅无法超越他们、甚至也难以相提并论。生者往往嫉妒和自己竞争的人,敌意与批评因此随处可见,而对于已不会和生者竞争的亡者,总会让他得到纯净而绝对的尊敬与赞扬。另外,对于痛失丈夫的女性,我想以一句简短的忠告归结我对女性美德的赞扬之词:对女性来说,你们的光荣不乏女性的本色,但能隐藏或克服性别上先天的柔弱,而又不被男人说短道长,那才是真正光荣的事。

我已经遵循传统法律,尽我所能地履行我的职责,致上我的献辞。如果说今天来参加葬礼的人都已经分享了亡者的荣耀,奉献的行动便已完成了一部分;剩下来的事便是由国家公费抚养他们的子女,直到长大成人。我们国家一向优厚地报赏艰苦奋战的亡者和他们的遗属,一如赏给竞赛中奋勇获得优胜的花冠一般。因为,给予勇敢美德最丰厚的奖赏,就会有优秀的公民为国效力。我们已各自以行动表示对亡者的哀悼,可就此散去了!

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