高考英语知识点复习(三)

69.break 小结

break 一词常用搭配有:

(1)break out(战争、火灾、争吵、瘟疫等)爆发

A big fire broke out in the city last week.

(2)break away from 脱离

A carriage(车厢)broke away from the train.

(3)break the law 违反法律

Who breaks the law will be punished by the law.

(4)break in 破门而入;打断

He broke in to say that he was not interested in what I was talking about.

(5)break down 损坏;中断

Her fridge has broken down for a long time.

(6)break off 打断;结束;暂停

They were arguing(争论)but broke off when someone came into the room.

(7)break into闯入;侵入

Thieves broke into my house when I was out.

break off

该短语动词的意思是“中断说话”,“暂时停止”。如:

He broke off in the middle of a sentence.

break sth.off/break off sth. with sb.

前者意为“(使)折断”,后者意为“与某人突然断绝(关系)”。如:

The mast broke off /was broken off when the ship was moving.

break out(战争、火灾、疾病、瘟疫等的)爆发

①The American Civil War broke out in 1861.

②Fire broke out in the neighbour last night.

break out in (into)…忽然(做出)……

break out in laughter突然放声大笑

break in (强盗等)强行闯入

break into闯入;打碎(打破)成……

break up 分开,分割

70.bring短语归纳

bring down(风)刮倒,降低(降落);bring up 养大,呕吐;bring about带来,引起;bring along捎来,带来,bring back 归还;bring out 拿出;bring in 赚(钱),带进,传入;bring on 端上(饭菜),引起(火灾),使……成长;

[应用]副词填空

①He felt terribly ill and brought ______ what he ate.

②Surely the new railway will bring __ many changes in this less developed area.

③Next time you come to China, be sure to bring ______your friends.

④All the library books must be brought_______ before June20.

⑤Selling newspapers brings ______ enough money for my schooling.

⑥Enough water can bring the rice _______ .

Key: ①up ②about ③along ④back ⑤in ⑥on

bring/take/fetch(get)/carry

①bring向着说话人的地方“带来;拿来”。

②take由说话人的地方“带走;拿去”。

③fetch(get)由说话人的地方“去拿来、带来”,指往返双程。

④carry“携带;搬运;运送”,无方向性。

bring in 把……拿进来;收获;赚入……;获利

They bring in one million dollars a year from their new company.

71.broadcast vt.;vi.广播;播放。过去式和过去分词均为broadcast。

①The BBC broadcasts every day.BBC每天都广播。

②The news was broadcast on the radio.这个消息是收音机里播送的。

72.burst into tears

该动宾短语,理解的重点是不及物动词burst的意思及其分词或副词连用的结构形式和意思。

burst是及物动词或不及物动词,意为“(使)爆破”,“胀破”。如:

①He put too much air into the balloon and it burst.

②The funny joke made the children burst their sides with laughing.

burst由原意引伸出表示空发性的动作,意为“突然发生”,“突然发作”。常构成一些短语,如:

burst into tears/laughter(突然大哭/大笑)

burst into song(突然唱起歌来)

burst into angry speech(大发雷庭)

burst into bloom(开花)

burst into view/sight(景象,奇观的)突然出现

burst into the room(闯入房间)

burst out/forth laughing(捧腹大笑)

burst out/forth crying(突然大哭)

如:On hearing the sad news, she burst into tears.

73.Busy

be busy doing sth.

该结构意为“忙于做某事”。应注意的是be busy 后只能接动词-ing形式,不能接动词不定式to do,相同结构的形容词还有worth。如:

①He is busy writing his composition.

②She keeps busy working on a new novel these weeks.

③This book is well worth seeing.

74.but prep. 除…之外。与except同义,除了的部分与其他部分不在一个范围内,不具有一致性。except适用场合较多,but 主要用于带有nothing/nobody/no one/all 等不定代词的句子。

①No one except/but you was late.除你之外没有迟到。(你迟到了)

②We all went to see a film yesterday evening except/but you.除你之外作天晚上我们都去看电影了。(你没去)

③That window is open except in winter .除冬天外那窗户一直开着。(冬天不开)另外,but后可接不不定式。如果句子前面有实义动词do及其变化形式时,不定式不带to; 否则不定式带to .

①I did nothing yesterday evening but watch TV.昨天晚上除看电视外我什么也没干。

②He had no choice but to leave.他只得离开。

注意:besides 也是介词,意为“除……之外(还有)”。除了的部分和其他部分在同一个范围内,具有一致性。

①We all went to see a film yesterday evening besides you.除你之外昨天晚上我们也都去看电影了。(你和我们都去了)

②Who is going there with Tom besides you? 除你之外还有谁和汤姆一起去?

but for

该短语介词意为“要不是……”,后接名词(=without + n.),but for…短语相当于一个虚拟条件句,因此,句中谓语动词用虚拟语气。如:

The boy would have drowned but for your help.

如果接的是句子,but for要换用成but that… 如:

He would have helped us but that he was short of money at the time.(= if it had not been the fact that he was…)

75.by prep. 乘……。用来表示方式,其后的名词为单数,且不加冠词。

例如 by bike/bus/ car /taxi/train//road/railway/land/boat/ship/ water/ sea/

plane/air

但:“步行”用on foot.

注意:若表示交通工具的名词前有限定词,则将by 改作in 或on.

in one’s/the car/ bus/plane etc. on the bike

by name

该介宾词组的意思是“名叫……”;“凭名字”。如:

①He met a man, John by name.

②I knew him only by name.

by one’s first marriage 通过或由于某人的第一次婚姻

介词by有许多含义,在此处意为“通过”,相当于through。

He left by the first train.

他乘第一次列车离开了。

The electricity supply is operated by a switch.供电由一个开关控制。

by the age of/at the age of,by到……时为止。表示的是一段时间,句子通常用完成时态。

at在……时候。表示的是具体时间点,句子通常用一般时态。

①By the age of ten,he had learned to play the piano.10岁的时候,他就学会了弹钢琴。

②He was very clever.and at the age of 15 he went to college.他非常聪明,15岁时上大学了。

③By the end of this term,we’ll have learned 2000 English words.到本学期末,我们将学会2000个英语单词。

④At the end of this term,we’ll hold an English party.在本学期末,我们

将举行一次英语晚会.

76.call 短语

动词.call所构成的短语很多,现将在中学课上的常出现的由call所构成短语的意义和用法列出。

(1)call at 指短期访问某地:顺便去某处。

We called at the park when we stayed in the city. 我们在那个城市时顺便去了那个公园。

(2)call on的意思“正式拜访某人”;此外,它还有“号召”之意。如:

They called on the famous scientist.他们拜访了那个著名科学家。

The Party calls on us to learn from Comrade Lei Feng.党号召我们向雷锋同志学习。

(3)call to“大声呼唤、招呼、呼求”。如:

They called to us for help. 他们向我们呼求援助。

(4)call for可作“要求、需要、提倡”,还可作“邀约”解。如:

This is a problem that calls for immediate solution.这是个要求立即解决的问题。

I’ll call for you then and we go there together.到时我来叫你,我们一起去哪儿。

(5)call in有“召来、召请、召进”之意。

You’d better call in a doctor.你最好请一位医生来。

(6)此外,call back有“叫回来、收回”之意;call off有“叫出去、叫走”之意;call after可作“追在后面叫喊”和“以某人的名字命名”之意。

77.can/may/must表推测的用法

can, may, must等都可用于表推测,但它们的含义和用法不同。

must语气最肯定,指“一定、必定”,只用于肯定句中。“must+动词原形”表示对现在情况的推测;“must + have + done ”表示对过去情况的推测。如:

Mum must be cooking supper now.妈妈现在一定在做晚饭。

He must have finished his work.他一定完成他的工作了。

May/might表示“或许,可能”。如:

Tom may go abroad next year.汤姆明年可能要出国。

She might have finished the work.她可能已完成这项工作了。

He can’t know the answer.他不可能知道这个答案。

can/could表示“可能,会”,我用于否定和疑问句中。如:

Could she he at home?她可能在家吗?

can,表示一时的情况,意为“有时侯会……”。

can的这种用法,只用在肯定句中。如:

Children are lovely, but they can be tiring.

Training by yourself in a game can be highly dangerous.

78.carry短语归纳

carry away拿走,带走;carry on(with)one’s work继续工作;carry on a struggle/fight 开展斗争;carry on a big business经营大生意;carry out a plan/order/promise/instructions/one’s duty/an experiment/advices/tests执行计划/执行命令/履行诺言/执行指示/履行职责/做实验/按建议办/进行试验;be carried up into space被发射升空。

[应用]介、副词填空

①It’s often easier to make plans than it is to carry them______.

②Let’s stop here. We’ll carry________ the conversation tomorrow.

③Carry the baby _______. It’s dangerous here.

④Rising costs made it hard to carry ________ the business.

⑤They decided to carry ________ though the weather was bad.

Key:①out ②on ③away ④on ⑤on

carry out 搬出;进行,实行,执行

①Would you please carry the chairs out?

The plan should be carried out at once.

It was important to carry out the work quickly.赶快进行这些工作是重要的。

He did not carry out his promise to us. 对我们他没有实现他的诺言。

用out构成的短语:look out向外看,小心work out算出来,实行。

leave out遗漏,忽视 take/bring out拿出来

thinking out想出 hold out伸出,支持,抵抗到底

79.case用法小结

(1)名词case的词意

①意为“情形、情况”。

If that’s the case, you’ll have to work much harder.如果是那种情形的话,你将不得不更加努力地工作。

②意为“病例、案例”。

There were seven cases of cholera.有7起霍乱的病例。

The civil case will be heard in court next week. 这一案件将于下星期审理。

③意为“箱、盒、容器”。

John bought a case of beer.约翰买了一箱啤酒。

(2)由case构成的短语

①in case意为“因为可能发生某事、以防万一”,是介词短语,在句中作状语,常可置于句尾;也可用做连词,后跟that从句(that常省略),表示条件或目的,从句谓语习惯用should+动词原形(should常省略)或陈述语气。

It may rain—you’d better take an umbrella(just)in case(it does).可能下雨——你最好带把雨伞,以防万一。

In case(=If)he arrives before I get back, please ask him to wait.

如果他在我回来之前到,请让他等一下。

He doesn’t dare to leave the house in case(that)he should be recognized.他不敢出门,生怕被认出来。

②in that case意为“既然那样、假若是那样的话”,用来承接上文。

In that case, you wouldn’t have a pan on fire. You’d have a house on fire!

要是那样,你就不光使锅着火,你还会把房子烧起来。

You don’t like the job? In that case why don’t you leave?你不喜欢这份工作?那你怎么不辞掉呢?

He may be late. In that case we ought to wait for him.他可能迟到,因此我们应该等他。

③in any case意为“无论如何、总之”。

We have to help him to pay the debt in case.我们无论如何要帮他还债。

④in no case意为“在任何情形下决不、无论如何都不”,用于句首时句子要进行部分倒装。

In no case shall I forget the expression on her face.我决不会忘记她脸上的表情。

⑤in case of sth.意为“若发生某事、如果、假如”,是短语介词,后接名词、代词、 -ing形式作宾语。

In case of fire, ring the alarm bell.遇火警时立即按警铃。

In case of rain(=In case it rains),they can’t go.要是下雨,他们就走不了了。

In case of his being absent, we’ll put off the meeting till next week.如果他缺席,我们就会把会议推迟到下周。

⑥in the case of意为“至于、就……来说”,是短语介词。

In the case of your debt, I’ll pay it off for you.至于你的欠款,我会替你还清的。

80.catch fire; on fire

catch fire 意为“着火”,表示动作。on fire 意为“着火、在燃烧”,表示状态。如:

Suddenly a pan of oil catches fire.

Soon the whole floor was on fire and it was impossible for people on the floors above to escape.

81.cause n.(大家为之奋斗的)事业

Helping the poor is a worthy cause. 帮助穷人是一项有价值的事业。

World peace is the cause he works for. 世界和平是他为之奋斗的事业。

cause v.导致,引起

1)接名词:cause an accident/trouble/death/a fire/a serious illness/damage引起事故/惹麻烦/导致死亡/引起大火/导致重病/造成损害

2)接双宾语:cause sb.pain/trouble/damage给某人带来痛苦/麻烦/损害

3)接复合宾语:cuase sb. to do sth使某人做某事

The sound caused me to jump back. 那声音吓得我向后退。

[应用]完成句子

①什么使她改变了计划?

What _______ _______ ______ _______her plan?

②地震使所有的楼房倒塌了。

The earthquake ________ all the buildings ________ _______.

Key:①caused,her,to,change ②cuased,to,fall

82.certain某(些),仅作形容词用法。

①He didn’t come for a certain reason.

②A certain person called on me yesterday.

③She will do it on certain conditions.

83.some 也可以作此意讲,但前面无冠词

①He is living at some place in East Africa.

②I’ve read that story before in some book of other.

84.chance

1)用于短语:

give sb.a chance给某人一次机会;

have a chance to do sth.有机会做;

miss a chance错过机会;

lose a chance失去机会;

2)用于句型:

The chance is that…/ The chances are that…表示“有可能……”(句型中的The和That 可省略)。如:

The chance is (that)she’s already heard the news.

可能她已听到那则消息了。

Chances are that the new machine will arrive tomorrow.

新机器可能明天到。

3)后接of 或that从句表示“可能性”。如:

He has no chance of winning the match.他不可能赢得这次比赛。

There is a chance that I will see him.我有可能见到他。

[应用]一句多译:

那里有可能藏着蛇。

The chances are that there is a snake over there.

There is a chance of a snake hiding there.

There is a chance that a snake is over there.

change one’s mind

该动宾词组意为“改变主意”,其中mind常用单数形式。如:

If one always change one’s mind, he succeeds in nothing.

85.check out清点;结账;核实;检查;开票提款

Ask him to check the information out for us.请他为我们核实一下信息。

We’d better check the whole room out in case it has been bugged .

我们最好检查一下整个房间以免有蛀虫。

The trainees checked out all right.

这些培训学员完全合格。

She checked out 6000 dollars.她提款6000美元。

86.come true成为现实、实现

表示变化过程的系动词有:become,get,turn,而be表状态

区别:①He became(get,turned)angry when hearing the news.听到那消息他生气了。(从不……到生气)

②He was angry, because he heard some bad news.

他生气是因为听到不好的消息。

87.常用的单位量词

a piece of diary一则日记;a sheet of paper 一张纸;a suit

of clothes一套服装;an article of clothing一件衣服;a crowd

of people一群人;a basin of water 一盆水;a block of wood一块木头;a cake of soap 一块肥皂;a bottle of ink一瓶墨水;a grain of sand 一粒沙子;a group of tall trees 一片高树;a team of players一队运动员;a copy of China Youth 一分《中国青年》;a drop of oil 一滴油;a loaf of bread一块面包;a pack of cigarettes一包烟;a pair of socks一双短袜;a tin of beer一罐啤酒;a set of equipment一套设备;a bucket of water一桶水;a couple of eggs两个鸡蛋;a pile of old books 一堆旧书;a bowl of rice 一碗米饭;a handful of sand一把(少量的)沙

注意:上述单位量词本身具有复数形式,亦可被具体数字修饰,句中的谓语多用复数形式。

[应用]汉译英

①搬家时成堆的旧书被卖掉。

②三条重要新闻刊登在头版。

Key:①Piles of old books were sold when we moved.

②Three pieces of important news were printed in the front page.

88.常用合成形容词构成形式;

(1) adj+n.+ed:cold-blooded冷血的middle-aged中年的simple-minded头脑简单的,纯朴的

The white-haired girl was named Xi’er.

那个白毛女叫喜儿。

The milddle-aged woman is warm-hearted and is always willing to help others.

那位中年妇女是个热心肠,总是乐意助人

(2) n. +pres.p.(现在分词):English-speaking说英语的man-eating吃人的

(3) n. + adj:snow-white雪白的world-famous世界闻名的

(4)num.(数词)+n.+ed:four-legged四条腿的nine-storeyed九层的

(5) n.+ past p.(过去分词):man-made人造的

(6) adj.+ pres. p.:good-looking好看的

(7) adv. + past. P. :well-known著名的

89.chief/ main

两者都有“主要的”、“首要的”之意,但有区别。

chief 主要用于人,表示“为首的,有最高地位或权力的”。

main一般说明事与物,可指某些具体的或抽象的东西。如:

He is the chief policeman. 他是警长。

This is our main teaching building. 这是我们的主教学楼。

90.clear

(1)用作形容词,表示“清楚的,明白的”。如:

in a clear voice以清楚的声音;

be clear about sth.对……清楚,明白;

be clear to sb.对某人来说很清楚;

make one’s meaning clear 说明自己的意思;

注意两个句型:A:make it clear that…声明,说明;B.It’s (was)clear that…很明显(清楚)……。

(2)用作动词,表示“清除,清理,使干净”。如:

clear one’s room/a table/a street/the desk

整理房间/收拾桌子/清扫大街/整理书桌;

clear away the dishes/waste把餐碟收走/把垃圾清除

(3)clear up 的三个意义:

A.表示“清理,收拾,解决”。如:

The dustmen were busy clearing up the snow on the road.

清洁工正在清除路上的积雪。

This book has cleared up many problems for me.

这本书给我解决了许多难题。

B.表示“(天气)转晴”。如:

It’s snowing now, but I think it will clear up soon.

现在正在下雨,但是我想天气很快会晴的。

C.表示“露出喜悦的心情”。如:

Her face cleared up as she read the letter.

她看信的时候面露喜色。

[应用]完成句子

①她对下一步干什么十分清楚。

She is _________ _________what to do next.

②很清楚敌人是不会放弃他们的计划的。

________ _______ _______that the enemy wouldn’t give up their

plan.

③他明确表示他要离职。

He _________ _________ ________that he would leave office.

④在离开办公室以前,请把你的桌子整理一下。

_________ ________your desk before you leave the office.

Key:①clear,about ②It, is, clear  ③make , it clear ④Clear,up

clear up(天气)放晴,使明了,收拾整理,解决,了结

The sky cleared up just after the rain. 雨过天晴。

Don’t expect me to clear up after you. 别期望我在你后面收拾东西。(收拾不要的东西)

The police haven’t cleared up the murder case. 警察还没查清那件谋杀案。

His face cleared up as she heard the news.(引申义) 听到这个消息她脸上露出喜悦之情。

对比:clean up打扫干净,整理,获利,赚钱

The students cleaned up the classroom after class.(打扫干净) 下课后学生们打扫教室。

90. cloth; clothes; dress

cloth指做衣服等用的“衣料、布”。一般作不可数名词。如:

I put a piece of wet cloth around my face and lay on the floor for about two hours.

注:用于表达特殊用途的布,如“桌布、抹布”等时,cloth用做可数名词。如:

He washed a table cloth just now.

clothes意为“衣服”,总是以复数形式出现,泛指身上穿的各部分衣着,包括上衣、裤子、内衣、背心等。如:Look at these clothes. They are on Mrs Green’s clothes line.

注意:

(1)“一件衣服”不可说 a clothes, 应说 an article of clothing;“一套衣服”可说a suit(set) of clothes.

(2)clothes 前不可直接用数词修饰,如不可说three clothes.

(3)clothes 前可用these, those, the, many, few修饰,口语中可用much, little修饰。

(4)chothes作主语时,谓语动词只能用复数形式。

dress 可用于可数和不可数名词,用于可数名词时,常指妇女、儿童服装、内衣或外衣等公共场合穿的衣服。用于不可数名词时,统指“衣服”。该词可作动词,意为“给……穿衣”。如:

What colour is Mrs Green’s dress?

He could not wash himself or get dressed.

91.combine; connect; join; unite

此组动词意为“联合、连接”。

combine意为“结合、联合”,指为了某一目的而把两事物结合在一起。如:

We must combine theory with practice.我们必须把理论和实践联系起来。

He combines botany with chemistry.他把植物学和化学联系起来了。

connect“连接”,指用东西把两事物连接在一起,或两事物直接相连,二者仍保持原状。

The two cities are connected by a railway. 两座城市由铁路相连。

He connected the gas stove with gas pipe.他把煤气和接在煤气炉上。

join意为“连接”,指以线、绳、桥等把两物或两地连接在一起,和connect意思相近,也可指两物互相紧密相接。如:

We had better join the island to the mainland with a steel bridge.我们最好建一座钢筋桥把这个岛与大陆连接起来。

Where does this stream join the Changjiang River?这条河和长江在哪里会合?

unite意为“联合”,指两种以上的事物结合为一体,有合二为一的意味,强调结合后的统一性。

The two companies will unite into one.这两家公司将合并成一家。

The whole family united to help him.全家齐心协力帮助他。

92.come about: happen 产生;发生。相当于不及物动词,和happen, take place一样无被动语态。

①How did this accident come about ?这事故怎么发生的?

②I don’t know how the quarrel came about.我不知道怎么发生的争吵。

come across=meet with(meet…by chance/accident)无意中碰到,找到,想到

Perhaps I shall come across him somewhere in the park.

也许我会在公园的某个地方遇到他。

He came suddenly across an idea.

他突然有了一个好主意。

come down下来,流传下来,倒塌,没落,病倒,减价

The song comes down to us from the 10th century.(流传下来)

这首歌是从10世纪流传到我们这一代的。

The roof of the house came down during the night.

我听说计算机要降价。

come out

come out是本单元需要掌握的一个重点词语,现在我们对它们的用法作一比较全面的了解。

(1)come out(= be published)出来;出版

I’ll let you have a copy of my book as soon as it comes out.我的书一出版我就送你一本。

(2)come out (= to bloom)长出;发芽;开花;(使)开花;(使)繁盛

Spring comes, the trees turn green and flowers come out.春天来了,树变绿了,花儿开了。

(3)come out (= to appear)出现;出来

Ever since then, the bat comes out only at night.从那时起,蝙幅只在晚上出来。

(4)come out(= to win…)获得(名次)

I came out first in the examination.我考试得了第一名。

(5)come out(= to become known)传出,公之于众;(秘密)泄露

The truth will come out some day.总有一天会真相大白的。

(6)come out (= to be seen, as in a photograph)(在相片等中)显示;被看见

Mary always comes out well in photos.玛丽总是很上相。

(7)come out (= to be developed)冲印;冲洗

The boss said that the photos had been come out for a long time.老板说照片已经冲印出来很久了。

(8)come out (= to be removed; disappear)去掉;消失

Would you please help me to make the ink in my shirt come out?你能帮我把衬衣上的墨水渍去掉吗?

(9)come out (to be on strike; to refuse to work)罢工

The workers came out for a pay raise.工人们为增加工资而罢工。

(10)come out (= to end in the stated way)后来发现;结果是

The answer to the question came out wrong.这个问题的答案后来发现是错误的。

(11)come out (= to express clearly)(意思)表达清楚

The meaning of his speech did not come out well.他讲话的意思不很清楚。

(12)come out (= to be counted)算出来;总计

The total expense(花费)comes out at 5000 yuan.总开支达五千元。

come to light 发现,暴露(= be discovered / exposed /found out / be brought to light)

Much more new evidence has come to light(has been discovered/has been exposed/has been brought to light),so the judges have to sentence the man to death.

新的证据不断被发现,所以法官们不得不判这个人死刑。

When the old woman died, it came to light that she was actually very rich.

老太婆死后,人们才发现她其实很富有。

93.common adj.共同的;一般的;公共的

A great interest in music was common to them.他们对音乐都有共同的强列的兴趣。

The common people in those days suffered a lot.当时一般民众生活都很苦。

We work for the common good.我们为了公共利益而工作。

common ,ordinary

二者都有“普通的,平常的”的意思,但侧重点不同。ordinary侧重表示“外表平凡,平平常常”;而common指“普遍存在,经常碰到”。对比:

in ordinary dress穿着平常的衣服;

in an ordinary way以通常的方式;

an ordinary – looking man相貌平常的人;

an ordinary event平常的一件事;

common excuse常用的借口;

common knowledge常识;common people普通人,老百姓;

have a bathroom in common合用洗澡间。

[应用]完成句子

①那是一首普通的舞曲。It was a piece of______dance music.

②这种天气在南方是很常见的。This sort of weather is quite _________in the south.

③这弟兄两个没有什么共同之处。These two brothers have nothing ________ _________.

Key:①ordinary ②common ③in common

94.communicate v. (1)vt.传达,传送,传染

communicate information/feelings/news…to sb.把信息、感情、消息……传递/传达给某人

I’ll communicate the news to you directly. 我会直接把消息传达给你。

(2)vi.通讯,通话

communicate with sb.(by)用……与某人联络/沟通

We communicate with each other by telephone/letter. 我们用电话/信件彼此沟通。

拓展:communication n.[u]通讯[c]消息pl.通讯系统

Radio and television are important means of communication. 收音机和电视机是信息交流的重要工具。

Communications satellite helps the human a lot in many ways . 通讯卫星在很多方面对人类有很大的帮助。

95.complete, finish

二个词都有“完成”之意,但complete更突出使一切完备、没有欠缺、多指完成工程、设计等。而finish是一般用语。常用短语有:complete the work完成工作;complete the new railway 修完铁路;complete one’s collection of stamps完备集邮;finish one’s homework/middle school/writing the article 完成作业/中学毕业/写完文章。

注意:complete还可用作形容词,意为“完全的,彻底的、完成了的”。completely 是副词,“完全地、彻底地”。如:a complete sentence/strange/success/failure完整的句子/完全陌生/完全成功/彻底的失败。This job is completely new to me.这项工作对我来说是完全陌生的。

[应用]单句改错

①You have to finish to read the whole passage in five minutes.

②Professor Smith has been complete successful in working out the problem.

Key:①改to read为reading,因为finish后只能接动名词。②改complete为completely。

96.congratulate v. 祝贺,庆贺

常用短语:congratulate sb. on / upon sth. / doing sth.为某事向某人祝贺

congratulate oneself that…因……而自己庆幸

congratulations常用于祝贺语,后可接on,也可单独用。

I’d like to congratulate you on your success.

对你的成功我表示祝贺。

I’d like to offer my congratulations on your success. 对你的成功我表示祝贺。

You really should congratulate yourself on your appearance.

(= You really should congratulate that you are so handsome.) 你真该为自己的外表而庆幸。

对比:celebrate sth.庆贺某事

We’ll celebrate the New Year with a dance party. 我们将举行跳舞晚会以庆贺新年。

拓展:in celebration of… 庆祝…… hold a celebration举行庆祝(会)

97.congratulate, congratulations

①congratulate是动词,作“祝贺、庆祝”解时,必须以被祝贺的人作宾语,构成:congratulate sb. on sth./doing sth.表示“祝贺某人……”。另外:congratulate oneself表示“庆幸,感到幸运”。如:

We congratulated him on his success/his having succeeded.

我们祝贺他的成功。

I congratulated myself on having escaped unhurt.

我因自己幸免于难而感到幸运。

②congratulation是名词,多用作复数形式。注意下列用法:

Congratulations!(单独使用)祝贺你!

Congratulations on your success对你的成功我表示祝贺。

Congratulations to everybody!祝贺大家!

Please accept my congratulations on your birthday.

请接受我对你的生日祝贺。

[应用]选择正确答案

We offered him our congratulations him passing the college entrance exams.(MET’93)

A. at B. on C. for D. of

98.connect连接,把……联系起来

(1)vt. The road connects London and Edinburgh.

这条路把伦敦和爱丁堡连在一起。

The two cities are connected by a canal.

这两座城市由运河连在一起。

A good student must connect what he reads with and what he sees around him.

一个好学生必须把他所读的与所见的联系起来。

(2)be connected with与……有关系;与……有亲戚关系

She is connected with the Smiths.

她与史密斯家有亲戚关系。

对比:join…to…

Every family is joined to the world by Internet.

每个家庭由网络与世界联系在一起。

connect vt.; vi.连接;联系。

①He connected the two speakers to (with)the recorder.他把两个喇叭同录音机相连。

②Many people connect China with the Great Wall.许多人把中国与长城联系在一起。

99.consider用法小结

consider是个很常用的动词,其意义不同,句型结构也不同。我们在学习中要特别注意。

(1)作“仔细考虑、深思熟虑”解,consider可作不及物动词或及物动词。

作及动词时,后可接名词、代词、动名词作宾语,不能接动词不定式,但可以接疑问词+不定式,相当于宾语从句。例如:

Consider carefully before you decide.你要慎重考虑后再做决定。

They considered your suggestion.他们仔细考虑了你的建议。

He is considering studying abroad.他在考虑出国留学。

We are considering how to help them.我们在考虑如何帮助他们。

(2)作“将……视为、认为、以为”解。

①可用consider+名词+(to be)名词(形容词)或consider+名词+as+名词(形容词)结构,但当不定式为行为动词时,不能省略,不可用于进行时。这样用时相当于that引导宾语从句。例如:

He considers himself(to be)clever(=as clever).=He considers that he is clever.他认为自己很聪明。

I consider him(to be)my closest friend(as my closest friend).=I consider(that)he is my closest friend.我把他视为我最亲密的朋友。

He is considered to have invented the first computer.他被认为是最早发明计算机的人。

②还可用于consider+it(形式宾语)+形容词+不定式结构。例如:

I consider it wrong for students to smoke.我认为学生抽烟是不对的。

consider的用法:①You should consider the question.你应该考虑这个问题。

②跟从句

He began to consider when he would get married他开始考虑什么时侯结婚的事情。

③跟疑问词 + to do sth.

He is considering how to get there in time.他正想怎么能及时赶到那儿。

④跟动名词

Who considers answering the question?谁正在考虑回答这个问题?

⑤为……着想

He always considers others before himself他常先为别人着想。

⑥名词为:consideration(不可数)

100.take sth. into consideration把……考虑在内

If you want to go on holidays in Beijing,you should take the cost into consideration.

如果想到北京去度假,你应该考虑费用问题。

101.content

(1)n.内容;目录

He always reads the contents of a book first of all.他读书总是先从目录看起。

(2)adj.满足的;甘心的

Are you content with your work?你对你的工作满意吗?

(3)vt.使(某人)满足。

The little boy contented himself with a new toy.那男孩有了新玩具就满足了。

102.The weather continued cold.天气持续寒冷。

cover盖上;掩盖;占据(时间)(空间),走过(路程);采访。

①My mother covered the baby with a blanket.

②She tried to cover the fact that she had been to the place.

③I’m covering the accident.

103.create; invent; discover

三者含义相近,但用法不同:

(1)create“创造、创作”,指产生出新的东西,其对象往往是精神上的,如艺术、文学作品中的人物及新的科学领域等。例如:

Shakespeare created many famous characters.莎士比亚创造了许多有名的人物。

(2)invent“发明”,指创造出原来自然界不存在的东西,如工具、方法、手段、灯泡、汽车、电视、合成材料等。例如:

who invented the telephone?谁发明了电话?

He invented a new teaching method.他发明了一种的教学方法。

(3)discover指“发现或找到”某种自然界本来已存在,但以前未被人类发现或认识的事物,如发现元素、电、煤、石油、铁等矿藏以及新星、星系或科学真理等。例如:

I discovered an unopened letter in the drawer.我在抽屉里发现了一封未拆的信。

104.crowd

crowd 可用作名词,表示“人群,群”;用作动词,表示“群集,拥挤”。如:

a crowd of children一群孩子;crowds of books 成堆的书;a cheering crowd 欢呼的人群;crowd into 挤进;crowd in 拥入;crowd round围在……的周围;a crowded city/train拥挤的城市/火车;be crowded with 挤满、塞满

[应用]汉译英

①很多村民从大门拥入,院子里很挤。

②大厅里挤满了学生。

Key:①Many villagers crowded in through the gate and the yard was crowded.

②The hall was crowded with students.

105.cut短语归纳

1)用作动词:

get one’s hair cut理发;cut a loaf of bread in two 把一块面包一切为二;cut a figure in stone 雕刻石像;cut the price 降价;cut the article 删节文章;cut down trees 伐树;cut down on smoking减少吸烟;cut in 插嘴,插入,cut in with a few words插嘴讲几句话;cut off a corner切掉一角;cut off electricity切断电源;cut off three sentences删去三个句子;cut out切掉,删掉;cut out the last part of the play把剧本的最后一部分删掉;cut…open切开。

2) 用作名词:the cuts on one’s arms 臂上的伤口:make big cuts削减,降价

[应用]介、副词填空

①Big cuts have been made____the prices of medicine.

②The strong wind cut_____the electricity of the whole city.

③The chairman spoke so fast that nobody could cut____.

④All the trees were cut_____.They will have to answer for their foolish action

Key:①in ②off ③in ④down

106.date back to / date from

追溯到(某个时期),起始于(某个时期),从……时候就存在

The tower dates back to 1173.

这座塔起始于1173年。

The old church dates from the first century A.d.

这座古老的教堂起始于公元1世纪。

My interest in stamp collecting dates from my schooldays.

从学生时代起,我对集邮就开始感兴趣。

107.day by day一天天地

day after day日复一日,一天又一天

①Day by day he seems to grow a little stronger.

②I have to do this work day after day.

108.deal with,do with

1)二者都可表示“对付,应付,处理,安排”,但deal是不及物动词,可与how连用;而do是及物动词,只与what连用表示上述意义,不能单独使用。对比:We don’t know what to do with the waste materials./We don’t know how to deal with the waste materials.

我们不知道怎样处理这此废料。

What’s the best way of dealing with thieves?

对付小偷最好的办法是什么?

(此句中的deal with不可替换成do with)

2)deal with还可表示“论述,涉及到;与……相处”等意义,而do with 无此用法。如:

The books dealing with Asian problems sell well in colleges.论述亚洲问题的书在大学里很畅销。

That man is easy to deal with.这个人容易相处。

[应用]完成句子

①你是怎么处理这类事情的?

_________did you deal with matters of this sort?

What did you ________ _________matters of this sort?

②我们要处理的棘手事太多了。

There are too many difficulties for us to _________ ______.

Key:①How/ do,with ②deal, with

109.delight

to one’s delight

该词组意为“使某人高兴”,还可以表达为“to the delight of sb.”。

能这样表达的还有to one’s joy,to one’s surprise,to one’s sorrow等。如:

To my shame, I completely forgot our date.

110.demand

①当可数名词“要求”用

We refused his unreasonable demands.我们拒绝了他的无理要求。

②当不可数名词用

There is a great demand for typists but(a)poor demand for clerks.打字员很抢手但是办公室职员几乎没人需要。

③当动词用:demand+名词、代词、从句或to do sth.如:

They demanded the right to do things they like.

他们要求有做自己喜欢做的事情的权力。

The lady demanded to see our headmaster.那个女士要求见校长。

He demanded that we (should)try to finish our work on time.他要求我们按时完工。

宾语从句用虚拟语气形式,主+should+动原……

④demand问

“How old are you?”he demanded.

他问我“你多大啦?”

111.depend on(=rely on)依靠;依赖;以……而定;取决于……。如:

①Whether you will succeed or not depends on how hard you

work.你是否成功得看你努力的程度。

②I don’t want to depend on my parents any longer.我不想再依赖父母了。

destroy t.毁坏;破坏;毁灭。

①Don’t destroy the box .It may be useful.不要弄坏这个盒子,可能还有用。

②The whole building was badly desdtroyed by the fire.整幢楼房都被大火严重烧毁了。

112.determine v.

(1)决心、决定,其后可接动词不定式、从句或on引导的短语。如:

We determined to get the work done before October 1.我们决定在“十一”之前完成这项工作。

She determined to go that very afternoon.

Have you determined where you’re going to spend the summer vocaion?你决定在哪儿过暑假了吗?

They determined on an early start.他们决定早动身。

He has determined on going home next week.他决定下周回家。

(2)使……决意,后接不定式或介词短语作宾补。如:

What determined you to accept the invitation?什么原因使你接受这个请帖?

The situation determined him against further delay.形势使他决定不再拖延。

(3)be determined(to do sth.)下定决心;有决心,后接不定式或从句。如:

He was determined to study English well.他下决心把英语学好。

I was determined not to follow their advice.

We were determined that we should never allow such things to happen again.我们决定绝不允许这类事情再次发生。

(注意从句运动用should + 动词原形)]

determine to do sth.决定(心)做……

I left him,determined never to set foot in that house again.

113.devote…to…把……献给,把……用在

devote oneself to…致力于,献身于

be devoted to…专心致志于,献身于,忠于

①Mary devotes too much time to eating.

②He has devoted his whole life to benefiting mankind.

③He devoted himself entirely to music.

④He was still devoted to the study of chemistry.

⑤He is very devoted to his wife.

114.die out 熄灭;绝种;逐渐消失。如:

①The fire died out .火灭了。

②That talkative man’s voice died out.那个健谈的人的声音渐渐地听不见了。

115.the + 形容词(分词)表示一类人的用法。

常见的短语有:

the old(young; rich; poor; learned; living…).如:

The living should carry out what the dead unfinished.

活着的人(后人)应该把前人未竞事业进行到底。

116.no more than①(=noly)仅仅,不过。②两者都不。如:

①What can I do, I’m no more than a citizen.

我能怎么样,我只不过是个平民百姓。

②Tom is no cleverer than Jack.汤姆和杰克都不聪明。

但是:not more than 表示A 不如B(……)或不超过。如;

①My English is not better than yours.

我的英语不如你的好。

②I think you are not more than twenty years old.

我想你不满二十岁吧。

117.diet; food

两者都可作“食物”解。diet指的是习惯上吃的食物或规定要吃的食物,特指维持健康的定量或定质的食物,如病人的疗养饮食。food是一般用语。凡能吃喝的具有营养的东西都可称food.例如:

The Chinese diet is considered to be the healthiest in the world。中国的饮食被认是世界上最健康的饮食。

Proper diet and exercise are both important to health.适当的饮食和锻炼对健康都很重要。

He is on a special diet to lose weight.他服用特别饮食以减肥。

The doctor put him on a liquid diet after operation.手术之后医生规定他吃流食。

They eat different kinds of food which change into energy.他们吃的各种各样的食物都转化成能量。

His food includes eggs, vegetables, fruit and some soft drinks.他的食物包括鸡蛋、蔬菜、水果和一些软饮料。

118.dip into 蘸进;随便翻阅;稍稍研究

I haven’t read that book properly. I’ve only dipped into it.

我没有好好读那本书,仅随便翻阅一下。

I’ve only dipped into politics.

我对政治研究不深。

119.discover

discover sth.发现某物;discover oneself暴露自己的身份;discover sb. doing sth.发现某人在做某事;discover sb./sth.to be…发现某人(物)……;discover + that 从句发现……常用搭配:discover one’s mistake/an island/the truth发现自己的错误/一座岛/事实的真相

[应用]完成句子

①我们发现他是一位出色的舞蹈家。

We ____her _____ ____ a good dancer./We _____ that_____ ____a good dancer.

②有人发现她在偷东西。

Someone ______ ______ ______ things./Someone discovered that

______ ______stealing things.

Key:①discovered,to, be/discovered, she, was ②discovered,her,stealing/she,was

120.disturb,interrupt

disturb有“打扰,扰乱,使(人)心神不宁”之意。如:disturb the sleeping child/one’s plan/the piblic peace 打扰睡觉的孩子/打乱计划/扰乱社会治安;be mentally disturbed精神上受到影响;be disturbed about 对……感到不妥。

对比:interrupt 有“打断,打扰”之意,侧重打断。如:Don’t interrupt me while I’m busy.我忙的时候不要打扰我。

[应用]完成句子

①她获悉母亲得急病后感到心神不安。

She was________ ________ her mother’s sudden illness./She

was________ _______hear of her mother’s sudden illness./She was________ ________ the news of her mother’s sudden illness.

②不要打断那位演讲者,他讲完再问你的问题。

Don’t _________ the speaker;ask your question after the meeting.

Key:①disturbed, about/disturbed,to/disturbed, by

②interrupt

121.do all sb.can to do sth.:do what sb.can to do sth.尽某人的所能做某事

all 后面为that 所引导的定语从句,that在从句中作宾语已被省略;can后面为避免重复省略了do;后面的to do sth.为不定式(短语)作目的状语。all(that)sb.can(do)相当于宾语从句what sb.can(do)。

①I’ll do all I can to help you.我将尽力帮助你。

②He did all he could to improve his spoken English. 他尽了最大努力来提高英语口语水平。

122.Do give her my regards.请一定代我她问好。

助动词 do 及其变化形式可在肯定句中用来强调动词,意为“务必;一定;的确;真的”,加强了句子的语气。

①Do be careful! 一定要小心

② I do like you.我真的喜欢你。

③She does work very hard.她学习确实很努力。

④—Why didn’t you tell him?你为什么不告诉他?

—I did tell him.我告诉他了。

123.do sb. a favour或do a favour for sb.给某人帮个忙,如果有to do sth.则常用。

do sb.the favour to do sth.如:

①I wonder if you can do me a favour?我不知道你能不能帮我个忙?(没有说干何事)

②Please do me the favour to open the door, I want to go out.

麻烦你给我开一下门,我要出去。

124.do up 收拾(东西)。整理、梳装打扮、系(扣)好……

①He was so hurried that he did up his buttons wrongly.

他太着急了以致于扣错了纽扣。

②She spent a long time doing up her hair.她花了很长时间把头盘起来。

125.Do you think so?

①“so”用于避免重复前面所说过的内容,等于代替肯定的名词性从句,可与believe,do,expect,fear,guess,hope,say,speak,suppose,

think等及It appear…,It seems和I’m afraid连用。

“Will they go to see him?”

“I believe so.(?I believe[that]they will go to see him.)”

②表示否定时,用not代替so,但在believe,suppose,think等动词之后,如I don’t think(believe,suppose)so等,通常仍可与so连用。

③不能和表示确信、疑问的词语连用。

I doubt about it.(√)

I doubt so.(×)

126.do walking 步行。“do + 动名词”结构表示“干某事,有较灵活的译法。

do reading(读书)/washing(洗衣服)/cooking(做饭)/shopping(买东西)/cleaning(打扫除)等。

Do what I told you to .

Don’t be late again.

127.doubt v.& n.怀疑,不相信

n.

of…对……(抱)怀疑或悲观(态度)

doubt 从句在否定句及疑问句中多跟that

引起的从句,在肯定句中多跟

whether(if)引起的从句。

①I doubt the truth of this report.

②They have never doubted of success.

③I don’t doubt that you are honest.

④Can you doubt that he will win?

⑤I doubt if that was what he wanted.

该词作名词时有以下短语

beyond(all)doubt毫无疑问;in doubt怀疑,犹豫,不肯定;no doubt肯定地,想必;without doubt毫无疑问,一定地

①The truth of the story is beyond doubt.

②I was in doubt about what to do.

③No doubt I learned a lot from that lecture.

④Without doubt these theories were all wrong.

128.dream vi.做梦,迫切希望

As he slept, he dreamed a dream. 他睡觉时做了一个梦。

W e dream of peace.我们梦想和平。

拓展:dream a pleasant/sweet/horrible dream 做好梦/甜梦/噩梦

live a happy/quiet/hard/normal life 过幸福/平静/艰苦/正常的生活

die a glorious death死得光荣

Do you dream at night?你晚上做梦吗?

dream of……多用于否定句中,“做梦也没想到,从未想到过”

I never dream of getting so much money.

我从未幻想过得到这么多钱。

Dream+从句

We never dreamed that the film was so long.

我们怎么也没想到这部电影这么长。

dream of迫切希望、渴望。

People all over the world are dreaming of peace.

全世界人民都渴望和平。

dreamy(adj.)模糊的,梦幻般的

I don’t believe your dreamy words.我不信你的梦语。

129.动词 + about

read about读到有关的内容;know about了解;learn about得知有关……;hear about 听说过;forget about 忘记有关……;talk about 谈论;argue about争论;chat about闲谈;tell about讲述有关……;think about考虑;write about写有关的……;joke about拿……开玩笑;worry about为……担心。

[应用]汉译英

①我已在报纸上读到了有关这次事故的情况。

②这件事我几乎忘了。

Key:①I’ve read about the accident in the newspaper.

②I almost forget about this matter.

130.动词+at

动词+at, 其中的at多表示“目标,方向”。如:

shout at朝……喊;laugh at 嘲笑;throw at 朝……扔;shoot at朝……射击;point at指着;aim at瞄准;call at拜访;stare at盯着;glance at一瞥;take a look at 看一眼;pull at 拉,扯;arrive at到达;come at 朝……起来;tear at撕,扯

[应用]完成句子

①别对那孩子大声嚷嚷,你吓坏她了。

Don’t ________ ________ the girl. You frightened her.

②他被朋友们嘲笑了。

He _________ _________ _________ by his friends.

Key:①shout, at ②was, laughed, at

131.动词不定式的省略

为了避免重复,我们常常把作宾语、宾补和谓语动词的一部分的不定式省略,只保留动词不定式的符号to。现将常见省略不定式的几种情况通过实例加以简析,供大家参考:

(1)—How about coming to my house?

—I’d love to if it doesn’t give you so much trouble.

在hope, like, love, promise, want, wish等词后作宾语的不定式常省略。再如:

You may go if you want to.

She can get a job if she hopes to.

—How about going hunting with me tomorrow?

—I’d like to, but I have no time.

(2)Don’t close the window until I ask you to.

在allow, ask, tell 等词后作宾语补足语的不定式常省略。再如:

Don’t touch the light unless your mother allows you to.

Don’t plant potatoes until the peasant tells you to.

(3)He didn’t want to hand in his composition, but he had to.

在be able to, be going to, have to, need to, enough to, used to等后的不定式需省略。再如:

I don’t sing much, now, but I used to a lot.

If you don’t want to say anything at the meeting, you don’t need to.

She didn’t go out last night, because she was afraid to.

在afraid, glad, happy, pleased, sorry等词后作状语的不定式常省略。再如:—Will you go with me to see the film tonight?

—I’ll be glad to.

132.动词 + off短语

fly off 飞走;go off 离开;take off 脱下,起飞;run off 跑开;fall off 掉下;turn off 关上;get off 下来;drive off 驶离;hurry off 匆忙离开;keep off 离开,勿靠近;pay off 还清(债)put off 推迟;send off驱逐;set off 出发,动身;throw off 扔掉,匆忙脱衣;ring off 挂断电话;

[应用]完成句子

①此处很危险,让孩子们离开。

It’s dangerous here.______ ______ the children.

②火车刚到,一大群人正在下车。

The train has just come in, with crowds of people_____ ______it.

Key:①keep ,off ②getting, off

133.动词 + up

go up(物价等)上涨,上升;build(up)one’s health使身体强壮;turn up 出席,到场,开大音量;divide up 分配;分给;set up 建立;come up走近,发芽;pick up 拾起,用车接,收听(节目);send up发射;get up 起床;grow up 长大;look up仰望,查阅;eat up 吃光;drink up喝光;use up用光;stay/sit up熬夜;give up放弃;take up占空间,从事,开始干;keep up保持,继续;put up举起,建起;hang up挂起来;hold up举起;join up 连接起来;rise up奋起反抗;move up向前移动;lift up扶起;do up包,捆;hurry up赶快;call up 打电话;break up拆散,破裂;make up组成,化妆,编造;bring up抚养大;dress up打扮;add up加起来;warm up变暖,热身。

[应用]完成句子

①物价在天天上涨。

Prices are_____ _____ day after day.

②衣服常常挂在火炉附近。

The clothes are often_______ ______ near a fire.

③妈妈的把孩子扶起来,领走了。

The mother_____ the baby______ and took him away.

④他到乡下呆了一段时间,身体好了起来。

He went and stayed in the countryside for a period of time and _____ ______ ______ _______.

Key: ①going, up②hung, up③lifted, up④built, up, his, health

134.drop用法归纳

drop可用作名词“滴”;用作不及物动词“掉下,滴下”;用作及物动词“使掉(滴)下”。如:

a drop of blood一滴血;drop by rop/in drops一滴一滴地;drop from the tree从树上掉下来;drop to the ground 落在地上;drop the letter into the mailbox把信投进信箱;drop a handkerchief/stone掉下手帕/石头

习语:drop in 顺便拜访;drop in on sb.顺便走访某人;drop in at his school顺便拜访他的学校。

[应用]完成句子

①我看见一个苹果从树上掉下来。

I saw an apple______ _______ the tree.

②他们这样做是搬起石头咂自己的脚。

In doing so they are lifting a rock to _______ ________on their

feet.

③你路过的话,千万要来。

Do _______ _______ if you happen to be passing.

Key:

①drop,from ②drop, it ③drop, in

135.due to , be due to

be due(to)有“应付给,应到的,预期的”之意,多用作表语,to不定式符号;而due to表示“由于,起因于”时,to是介词,相当于because of。如:

The train is due to arrive at 12.火车应于12点到。

When is the ship due?船预定何时到?

The accident was due to careless driving车祸是粗心驾车引起的。

[应用]完成句子

①那项计划由于资金不足而失败。

The program failed ________ _________lack of money.

②希尔先生预定明天演讲两次。

Mr Hill_________ _________ ________ lecture twice tomorrow.

Key:①due,to ②is ,due, to

136.earn v.赚;得到

①earn n. ②earn sb. sth ③earn one’s living

He earns $10,000 a year.他一年赚10,000英镑。

His honesty earned him great respect.他因诚实而博得人们的尊敬。

She earned her living by singing in a nightclub.她靠在夜总会唱歌谋生。

137.earn, gain, win ,get

四个词均有“得到”之意,但earn指经过艰苦努力所得到的报偿,意为“赚得”;gain指作出很大努力而“获得”,所得东西常有一定价值;get是普通词,指不一定需要努力就能“得到”;win意为“赢得”,含有取胜一方具有优越条件而能克服障碍之意。这四个词有时可通用。

[应用]英译汉

①earn much money/a prize/one’s living

②gain a victory/experience/the first prize/ten dollars/a living/success/the battle/a doctor’s degree

③get one’s help/full marks

Key: ①挣得很多钱/获奖/谋生

②获胜/取得经验/获得一等奖/赚10美元/谋生/获得成功/赢得战斗/获博士学位

③得到某人的帮助/得满分

138.earn one’s living,make one’s living 谋生,挣钱过活。

The professor earns his living by teaching at a language school.

139.eat up 吃光;吃掉。

He was so hungry that he ate up all the cakes and none was left.他太饿了,把所有的蛋糕都吃完了,一点也没剩。

类似的短语还有:drink up喝光;喝净。/burn up 烧完;烧掉。/use up 用完;用尽。/clean up打扫干净。

140.effect

have effect on 对……有影响,相当于affect:

It has had such a bad effect on him.

141.effort短语归纳

make the greatest effort 做最大努力;make great efforts尽最大努力;make a special effort作出特殊努力;make an effort to do sth.努力做某事;make every effort to help you尽力帮助你;make one last effort作最后的努力;make no effort不努力;spare no efforts to do sth.不遗余力去做某事;with(an)effort艰难地;without effort轻而易举地;in an effort努力。

[应用]完成句子

①他身体很强壮,可以轻易地提起那个重箱子。

He is strong enough to lift the heavy box _________.

②我们会不遗余力地阻止他们采取这一步骤。

We will ________ _______ _______to prevent them from takingthis

step.

③他艰难地游泳,为的是救出那个孩子。

He swam with difficulty________ _________ _______ ________ save

the boy.

④我不会努力去帮助这样的人。

I’ll ________ _________ _______ to help such a person.

Key:①without,effout ②spare, to ,efforts

③in, an, effort, to ④make, no, efforts

make efforts to do sth.努力(尽力)干……

make an effort (at)尽力,努力……

spare no effort不遗余力

I made every effort to get it (at getting it)

142.end up 结果,结束

He started as an employee and ended up as head of the firm.

他以职员开始而最后成为公司的主管。

The party ended up with a song.

晚会以一首歌曲结束。

If you continue to drive so carelessly, you’ll end up in hospital.

如果你继续这样不小心开车,你会进医院的。

对比:end指完结或终止,为意义最单纯的用语;

close指把已开始的事物像关闭似的加以结束;

finish尤指最后的修饰工作,或把已经做的加以完成;

complete指把不完美的各点或有缺陷的部分加以补充完成。

Let’s end the discussion.

The meeting was closed by the chairman’s speech.

Try to finish your homework before 9 o’clock.

Have you completed your new programme?

143.escape(1)vi.逃走;vt.逃避

The soldier managed to escape by running into the woods.

那个士兵进树林逃掉了。

You were lucky enough to escape punishment / being punished.

你很幸运逃脱了惩罚。

(2)n.[c]逃脱,逃亡

have a narrow escape 九死一生,死里逃生

144.exam; exmination; test; quiz

examination通常只指正式的“考试”,如期末考试、入学考试等。exam是examination的缩写,常用于口语,多为学生使用。test为“小考”成“考查”,quiz为“测验”,特指事先无准备,随时进行的测验,也可指(广播节目中的)一般知识测验、问答比赛、猜谜等。例如:

He did very well in the entrance examination. 他在入学考试中成绩很好。

There’s going to be a physics test this afternoon.今天下午将进行物理考试。

The teacher gave us a five-minute quiz.老师对我们进行了一次五分钟的小测验。

145.example; pattern;model

pattern“型、式样、图样”可指供模仿的某物原型或精心设计出的图样或模型,也可指榜样。如:

Can you use the sentence pattern?他会用这个句型吗?

She is a pattern for us.她是我们学习的典范。

model“模型、模范”,指供模仿或值得信效的人或物。如:

Have you seen his model ship?你看见过他的船模吗?

example “例子、榜样”,主要指人及其行为和活动被他人信效。如:

Example is better than precept.身教重于言教。

146.except; besides; except for+名词/except that+句子用法区别。

except 相当于but,表示“除了……以外(不包括在内)”,常与all, nobody,everything,everybody, nowhere等表示整体概念的词连用。besides相当于apart from,表示“除……以外(尚有)”之义。except for.../except that ...表示“除了……”之意,引述一个相反的原因或细节,因而部分地修正了句中的主要意思。如:Your article is well written except for some grammar mistakes.你的文章写得好,只是有几处语法错误。

excuse, pardon,forgive

excuse“原谅,宽恕”,语气较轻,指对轻微的冒犯、失礼等的原谅;pardon用于正式场合时意为“赦免”,也有“原谅,对不起”之意,语气最重;forgive指免除某人犯错误或违法承担的后果,或不追究其应受责备的行为。三个词都常与for连用,表示“原谅某人……”。

[应用]汉译英

①请原谅我迟到了。

②我永远不会原谅你昨天晚上说过的话。

Key:①Please excuse we for being late.

②The court pardoned the man who had broken the law for a certain reason.

③I’ll never orgive you for what you said to me last night.

147.expect, wait

二者均有“等待”之意,但有不同。expect侧重心理状态,因而可译为“期待,期盼”, 是及物动词;而wait指行动,有“不干别的事专门等”之意,是不及物动词。对比:

They are busy with prepartions, expecting the foreign guests.他们忙着准准备,期待着外宾的到来。

Holding little flags, the children are waiting for the foreign guests.孩子们手拿小旗,在等待外宾的到来。

[应用]完成句子

①她很久没有儿子的消息了,因而期待着他的电话。

She hasn’t heard from her son for a long time, so she _______

telephones from him.

②他正等着要和你说句话。

He ________ ________ to have a word with you.

Key:①expects ②is ,waiting

148.expert n.专家,能手 adj.精通的

①an expert on … 一名……方面的专家

②be expert at/in doing sth. 于……很内行

an expert on computer science 计算机方面的专家

She’s expert at/in looking after babies.

她对于照料婴儿很内行。

149.explain t. 说明;解释;讲解。

①He explained why he was late.他说明了迟到的原因。

②Please explain this exercise to me . 请把这个练习给我讲一讲。

150.express one’s satisfaction with对……表示满意

be satisfied with对……感到满意

The officials expressed their satisfaction with the preparation for the exhibition.

151.fall短语归纳

fall from a tree从树上掉下来;fall off a table从桌子上落下;

fall out of bed 从床上跌下来;fall asleep入睡;fall ill病倒;fall behind落后;fall in love with sb.爱上某人;fall to pieces倒塌,垮台,崩溃,解体;fall into the water跌进水中;fall down 倒下;fall onto the ground掉(倒)在地上;have many falls 跌下许多跤;in the fall在秋季。

[应用]完成句子

①那个孩子从墙上掉下来伤着了右腿。

The boy____ ____the wall and hurt his right leg.

②他不想在学习上落后于别人。

He didn’t want to _____ ____others in his studies.

Key:①fell,off ②fall,behind

fall ill 生病,得病

①Tom is absent,for he has fallen ill.

②John was caught in the storm and he fell ill.

fall over意为“跌倒”,“跌跤”。如:

When he was skating, he fell over some times.

fall to pieces

该短语意为“垮台”,“崩溃”,“倒塌”,“解体”。如:

①Most buildings fell to pieces in the earthquake in this city.

②Most organizations fell to pieces after political reform.

far below + n.

该词组意为“远远低于”,“比……低得多”,其中far是副词,用以加强语气。如:

The production of this factory was far below the normal level last year.

152.far from:不仅仅,远不是(跟动名词、形容词、名词或代词)。如:

①Far being slow, they are actually fast enough.他们一点也不慢,相反非常迅速。

②It’s far from perpect.它还很不完美。

另外:由far引出的短语

①go far(物)经用、时间长

This food can’t go far.这些东西不够吃。

②so far:到目前为止、到…程度(地步)

I can only tell you so far.我只能给你说到这一步。

③as far as就……而言、从……来看、尽……所能、只要……、一直查到某地

As far as I know, he will not come.据我所知,他不会来啦。

You should stick to your opinion as far as it is reasonable.只要你有理,就应该坚持。

We walked as far as the church.

我们一直走到教堂跟前。

153.feed vt. 喂养;以……为。常用结构:

feed…with/on sth . feed sth . to

①She feeds her baby with /on cow’s milk./she feeds cow’s milk to her baby.她用牛奶喂孩子。

②I feed my cat with/on fish./I feed fish to my cat .我用鱼喂猫。

另外:feed (vi.)on 相当于live on , 意为“以……为主食”。

Sheep feed mainly on grass.羊以草为主食。

fight against;fight for

feed…on…以……饲养(动物)

feed on(动物)以……为食

feed…to…喂(动物)……当饲料。

154.feel like…想(做某事);愿意。

I feel like going to a museum.我想去博物馆。

I feel like a drink. Have you got any beer?我想喝点东西,你俩有啤酒吗?

155.fight with,fight against意为“为反对……而战、与……作斗争”,against 后面接的是反对的对象,如:

They are fighting against their enemy.他们在与敌人作战。

Political leaders fought against slavery.政治领导们为了反对奴隶制度而斗争。

fight for 意为“为争取……而斗争、因为……而打架”。如:

Two dogs fight for a bone,and a third runs away with it.两只狗为抢一块骨头而打架,另一只狗把骨头叼走了。

fight with意为“同……(一起并肩)作战、与……作战”,它含有两重意思,试比较:

They fought with the Italian in the last war.他们在最后的这次战争中是与意大利人作战。

They fought with the Italian against France in that war.在那次战争中,他们和意大利联合作战反对法国。

156.figure; shape;form

这组名词都有“形状”的意思。

shape 着重指人或物等的比较具体的整个外形,不太正式;form指有实体结构和看得见的某种特殊形状或是抽象的形式;figure指物时,侧重指轮廊,指人时,着重指姿态。如:

Coins may be of different sizes,weights, shapes, and of diff-

erent metals. 硬币可能大小、轻重、形状不同,铸造的金属也可能不一样。

The shape of Italy is like a leg.意大利国的形状像一条腿。

Change these sentences into the Present Perfect Passive,putting the verbs into the correct forms.用动词的正确形式将下面的句子变成现在完成时的被动语态 。

Ice,snow and steam are forms of water.冰、雪、蒸气是水的几种形态。

You can see the tall stone figures and visit the temples of the gods.你可以看到那些高大的石雕像,参观那些神殿。

这组名词也可当动词用,shape意为“使什么东西具有某种具体的外

形”,常有“塑造”等具体意义;form指通过协商、组织等形成某种习惯、计划或组织等,一般相当于“形成”;figure通常指象征某事物。

157.find

(1)vt.发现,发觉

She found a wallet lying on the ground.

她发现地上有个钱包。

We found her still asleep.

我们发现她还在睡觉。

He found her left behind.

他发现她被落在后面。

(2)n.发现,发现物(尤指贵重或悦人的)

I made a great find in a second-hand bookshop yesterday.

昨天在旧书店里我有重大发现。

对比:find多指偶然发现,碰见;后可接名词、复合结构或从句。find out指通过观察、探索而发现事实的真相、真情,通过调查找出原因,或发现秘密、错误等;一般接名词、代词或从句。discover指发现客观事物的存在,发现已存在而不为人知的事情;多用于好的事物。

Have you found the book you have been looking for?

你一直找的书找到了吗?

Have you found out why he was late?

你弄清他为什么迟到吗?

Columbus discovered America.

哥伦布发现了美洲。

find one’s way(to)找到;设法找到去……的路

Can you find your way to the post office? 你能找到去邮局的路吗?

Rivers find their way to the sea. 条条江河通大海。

拓展:make one’s way非常困难地前进

feel one’s way 摸索着前进

force / fight one’s way突破……而前进

push one’s way排开……而前进

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