系统部署

系统安装过程

MBR:isolinux/boot.cat

stage2: isolinux/isolinux.bin

配置文件:isolinux/isolinux.cfg

装载根文件系统,并启动anaconda:默认启动GUI接口,若是显式指定使用TUI接口:向内核传递text参数即可(按tab键,在后面增加text;按ESC键:boot: linux text)

anaconda

工作过程

分为三个阶段:

  1. 安装前配置阶段

    安装过程使用的语言
    键盘类型
    安装目标存储设备
        Basic Storage:本地磁盘
        特殊设备:iSCSI
    设定主机名
    配置网络接口
    时区
    管理员密码
    设定分区方式及MBR的安装位置
    创建一个普通用户
    选定要安装的程序包
    
  2. 安装阶段

    在目标磁盘创建分区,执行格式化操作等
    将选定的程序包安装至目标位置
    安装bootloader和initramfs
    
  3. 图形模式首次启动

    iptables
    selinux
    core dump
    

配置方式

指定安装源:

centos6

DVD drive repo=cdrom :device
Hard Drive repo=hd:device/path
HTTP Server repo=http://host/path
HTTPS Server repo=https://host/path
FTP Server repo=ftp://username:password@ host/path
NFS Server repo=nfs:server:/path
ISO images on an NFS Server repo=nfsiso:server:/path

centos7

Any CD/DVD drive inst.repo=cdrom
Hard Drive inst.repo=hd:device:/path
HTTP Server inst.repo=http://host/path
HTTPS Server inst.repo=https://host/path
FTP Server inst.repo=ftp://username:password@ host/path
NFS Server inst.repo=nfs:[options:]server:/path

指明kickstart文件的位置:

DVD drive: ks=cdrom:/PATH/TO/KICKSTART_FILE
Hard drive: ks=hd:device:/directory/KICKSTART_FILE
HTTP server: ks=http://host:port/path/to/KICKSTART_FILE
FTP server: ks=ftp://host:port/path/to/KICKSTART_FILE
HTTPS server: ks=https://host:port/path/to/KICKSTART_FILE
NFS server:ks=nfs:host:/path/to/KICKSTART_FILE

kickstart

格式

命令段:指明各种安装前配置,如键盘类型等
    必备命令:
        authconfig: 认证方式配置
            authconfig --useshadow --passalgo=sha512
        bootloader:bootloader的安装位置及相关配置
            bootloader --location=mbr --driveorder=sda –append="crashkernel=auto rhgb quiet"
        keyboard: 设定键盘类型
        lang: 语言类型
        part: 创建分区
        rootpw: 指明root的密码
        timezone: 时区
    可选命令:
        install OR upgrade
        text: 文本安装界面
        network
        firewall
        selinux
        halt
        poweroff
        reboot
        repo
        user:安装完成后为系统创建新用户
        url: 指明安装源
        key –skip 跳过安装号码,适用于rhel版本(rehl版本不加这个,中途会卡在要求输入序列号的页面)
程序包段:指明要安装的程序包组或程序包,不安装的程序包等
    %packages
    @group_name
    package
    -package
    %end
脚本段:
    %pre: 安装前脚本,运行于安装介质上的微型Linux环境
    %post: 安装后脚本,运行环境:安装完成的系统

创建

  1. 直接手动编辑,依据某模板修改
  2. 可使用创建工具:system-config-kickstart

检查ks文件的语法错误:ksvalidator /PATH/TO/KICKSTART_FILE

isolinux目录列表

solinux.bin:光盘引导程序,在mkisofs的选项中需要明确给出文件路径,这个文件属于SYSLINUX项目

isolinux.cfg:isolinux.bin的配置文件,当光盘启动后(即运行isolinux.bin),会自动去找isolinux.cfg文件

vesamenu.c32:是光盘启动后的安装图形界面,也属于SYSLINUX项目,menu.c32版本是纯文本的菜单

Memtest:内存检测,这是一个独立的程序

splash.jgp:光盘启动界面的背景图

vmlinuz是内核映像

initrd.img是ramfs (先cpio,再gzip压缩)

自动化安装系统

  1. yum install -y httpd

    systemctl start httpd

    mkdir /var/www/html/centos6

    mount /dev/sr0 /var/www/html/centos6

    iptables -F

  2. yum install -y system-config-kickstart

    system-config-kickstart:启动图形化工具生成ks。cfg文件,格式如下:

    #platform=x86, AMD64, or Intel EM64T
    #version=DEVEL
    # Firewall configuration
    firewall --disabled
    # Install OS instead of upgrade
    install
    # Use network installation
    url --url="http://192.168.39.128/centos6"
    # System authorization information
    auth  --useshadow  --passalgo=sha512
    # Use graphical install
    graphical
    # System keyboard
    keyboard us
    # System language
    lang en_US
    # SELinux configuration
    selinux --disabled
    # Do not configure the X Window System
    skipx
    # Installation logging level
    logging --level=info
    
    # System timezone
    timezone  Africa/Abidjan
    # Network information
    network  --bootproto=dhcp --device=eth0 --onboot=on
    # System bootloader configuration
    bootloader --location=mbr
    # Clear the Master Boot Record
    zerombr
    # Partition clearing information
    clearpart --all --initlabel 
    # Disk partitioning information
    part /boot --fstype="ext4" --size=300
    part / --fstype="ext4" --size=20480
    part /app --fstype="ext4" --size=10240
    part swap --fstype="ext4" --size=2048
    
    %post
    service autofs restart
    
    rm -rf /etc/yum.repos.d/*
    cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/env.repo <<EOF
    [base]
    name=base
    baseurl=file:///misc/cd/
    enable=1
    gpgcheck=0
    
    [tsinghua]
    name=tsinghua
    baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/epel/$releasever/$basearch/
    enabled=0
    gpgcheck=0
    EOF
    
    mkdir /root/.ssh
    echo 'ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABIwAAAQEAyiSx2z8+qn22AfKVrOieIHRfa+O78RlHDJU5kMy6u1SVD86qRINAnIYgW4BTj02hI3xH6TKJeKgEnV8UxlnZtbGBhCM0wo4j20XQ1Mh/yhaAc1QaCFJqh4vbDMkLhA0T6dSfUTC7N1drhOMVVTHtQYFyRsylWP3Li435fzO6zXFBH/We6MmXu0OyAiMF+3cWQc0nCHA4xZGX9qep5DsMKc0UX4RWUORAnIIN98JuHSYtHj3yvrx+qbIBGXNXWNr9zBPAa3r7WWgITgL9BshI9/gHjw+H1kTuhb2njGqGECUgIF6M+PBk50uoZpbDilw7QJ7zjz3cDEwt+qcvL24yXQ== root@centos6.magedu.com' > /root/.ssh/authorized_keys
    %end
    
    %packages
    @base
    autofs
    
    %end
    
  3. 光盘启动ESC

    boot:linux ks=http://server/ks.cfg ip=192.168.31.200 netmask=255.255.255.0

制作引导光盘和U盘

  1. yum install -y httpd

    service httpd start

    iptables -F

    mkdir /var/www/html/centos6

    mount /dev/sr0 /var/www/html/centos6/

  2. yum install -y system-config-kickstart

    system-config-kickstart:启动图形化工具生成ks。cfg文件

  3. mkdir /app/boot

cp -r /misc/cd/isolinux /app/boot

mkdir /app/boot/ksdir

cp /root/ks6.cfg /app/boot/ksdir

  1. vim /app/boot/isolinux/isolinux.cfg

    default vesamenu.c32
    #prompt 1
    timeout 600
    
    display boot.msg
    
    menu background splash.jpg
    menu title Welcome to CentOS 6.9!
    menu color border 0 #ffffffff #00000000
    menu color sel 7 #ffffffff #ff000000
    menu color title 0 #ffffffff #00000000
    menu color tabmsg 0 #ffffffff #00000000
    menu color unsel 0 #ffffffff #00000000
    menu color hotsel 0 #ff000000 #ffffffff
    menu color hotkey 7 #ffffffff #ff000000
    menu color scrollbar 0 #ffffffff #00000000
    
    label linux
      menu label ^Auto Install an system # ^标记快捷键
      menu default # 默认菜单
      kernel vmlinuz
      append initrd=initrd.img ks=cdrom:/ksdir/ks6.cfg
    label vesa
      menu label Install ^Manual Centos
      kernel vmlinuz
      append initrd=initrd.img nomodeset repo=http://192.168.39.128/centos6
    label local # 本地启动
      menu label Boot from ^local drive
      localboot 0xffff
    
  2. mkisofs -R -J -T -v --no-emul-boot --boot-load-size 4 --boot-info-table -V "CentOS 6.9 x86_64 boot" -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -c isolinux/boot.cat -o /root/boot.iso /app/boot/:生成iso镜像文件

  3. yum install -y lrzsz

    sz /root/boot.iso

  4. 开机用boot.iso引导,测试(注意网卡问题)

mkisofs

用来将指定的目录与文件做成ISO 9660格式的映像文件,以供刻录光盘。常用选项:

  • -o:指定映像文件的名称
  • -b:指定在制作可开机光盘时所需的开机映像文件
  • -c:制作可开机光盘时,会将开机映像文件中的 no-eltorito-catalog 全部内容作成一个文件
  • -no-emul-boot:非模拟模式启动
  • -boot-load-size 4:设置载入部分的数量
  • -boot-info-table:在启动的图像中现实信息
  • -R/-rock:使用 Rock RidgeExtensions
  • -J/-joliet:使用 Joliet 格式的目录与文件名称
  • -v/-verbose:执行时显示详细的信息
  • -T/-translation-table:建立文件名的转换表,适用于不支持 Rock Ridge Extensions 的系统上

DHCP服务

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol,动态主机配置协议,局域网协议,UDP协议

主要用于内部网络和网络服务供应商自动分配IP地址给用户,也可以用于内部网络管理员作为对所有电脑作集中管理的手段

工作流程

DHCP.jpg

DHCP共有八种报文:

DHCP DISCOVER:客户端到服务器
DHCP OFFER :服务器到客户端
DHCP REQUEST:客户端到服务器
DHCP ACK :服务器到客户端
DHCP NAK:服务器到客户端,通知用户无法分配合适的IP地址
DHCP DECLINE :客户端到服务器,指示地址已被使用
DHCP RELEASE:客户端到服务器,放弃网络地址和取消剩余的租约时间
DHCP INFORM:客户端到服务器, 客户端如果需要从DHCP服务器端获取更为详细的配置信息,则发送Inform报文向服务器进行请求,极少用到

续约

50% :租赁时间达到50%时来续租,刚向DHCP服务器发向新的DHCPREQUEST请求。如果dhcp服务没有拒绝的理由,则回应DHCPACK信息。当DHCP客户端收到该应答信息后,就重新开始新的租用周期

87.5%:如果之前DHCP Server没有回应续租请求,等到租约期的7/8时,主机会再发送一次广播请求

简介

Linux DHCP协议的实现程序:dhcp, dnsmasq(dhcp,dns)

Dhcp Server:

dhcpd
ipv4配置文件:/usr/sbin/dhcpdconf
/usr/sbin/dhcrelay # 可以提供中继DHCP和BOOTP请求,从一个没有DHCP服务器的子网直接连接到其它子网内的一个或多个DHCP服务器。该命令在DHCP中继服务器上使用,同时支持DHCPv4/BOOTP和DHCPv6协议
dhcp server:67/udp
dhcp client: 68/udp
dhcpv6 client:546/udp

Dhcp client:

dhclient
自动获取的IP信息: /var/lib/dhclient

配置文件

dhcpd.conf:man 5 dhcpd.conf

option domain-name "magedu.com";
option domain-name-servers 192.168.0.1,8.8.8.8;
default-lease-time 86400;
max-lease-time 86400;
subnet 192.168.100.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
    range 192.168.100.1 192.168.100.200;
    option routers 192.168.100.1;
    filename "pxelinux.0"; # 指明引导文件名称
    next-server 192.168.100.100; # 提供引导文件的服务器IP地址
}

/var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd.leases:地址分配记录

检查语法

service dhcpd configtest

PXE安装系统

Preboot Excution Environment 预启动执行环境,Intel公司研发,基于Client/Server的网络模式,支持远程主机通过网络从远端服务器下载映像,并由此支持通过网络启动操作系统,PXE可以引导和安装Windows,linux等多种操作系统。

工作原理

PXE工作原理.png
  1. Client向PXE Server上的DHCP发送IP地址请求消息,DHCP检测Client是否合法(主要是检测Client的网卡MAC地址),如果合法则返回Client的IP地址,同时将启动文件pxelinux.0的位置信息一并传送给Client
  2. Client向PXE Server上的TFTP发送获取pxelinux.0请求消息,TFTP接收到消息之后再向Client发送pxelinux.0大小信息,试探Client是否满意,当TFTP收到Client发回的同意大小信息之后,正式向Client发送pxelinux.0
  3. Client执行接收到的pxelinux.0文件
  4. Client向TFTP Server发送针对本机的配置信息文件(在TFTP 服务的pxelinux.cfg目录下),TFTP将配置文件发回Client,继而Client根据配置文件执行后续操作。
  5. Client向TFTP发送Linux内核请求信息,TFTP接收到消息之后将内核文件发送给Client
  6. Client向TFTP发送根文件请求信息,TFTP接收到消息之后返回Linux根文件系统
  7. Client启动Linux内核
  8. Client下载安装源文件,读取自动化安装脚本

示例

配置pxe服务器端,支持CentOS6和CentOS7的安装(pxe+dhcpd+tftp-server+httpd)

注意网络问题,不要冲突

  1. 准备

    准备环境:CentOS6.9,静态IP(必须):192.168.0.6,CentOS6.9和CentOS7.5的ISO镜像

    关闭防火墙和selinux

    yum install -y dhcp tftp-server httpd syslinux

    mkdir /media/centos{6,7}

    mount -r /dev/sr0 /media/centos6/

    mount -r /dev/sr1 /media/centos7/

  2. 配置dhcp

    vim /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf

    log-facility local7; #记录日志级别
    subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {   #分配子网,和自己主机一个网段
        range 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.254; #地址池
        option domain-name-servers 114.114.114.114; #DNS
        option domain-name "pxe.test.org"; #搜索域
        option routers 192.168.0.1; #路由网关
        default-lease-time 600; #默认租约时间
        max-lease-time 7200; #最大租约时间
        next-server 192.168.0.6; #*指向tftp服务器地址,此处指向本机
        filename "pxelinux.0"; #pxe文件名,系统默认为pxelinux.0
    }
    

    service dhcpd start

    chkconfig dhcpd on

  3. 配置tftp-server

    chkconfig tftp on

    service xinetd start

  4. 准备启动文件

    cd /var/lib/tftpboot/

    mkdir centos{6,7}

    mkdir pxelinux.cfg/

    cp /media/centos6/isolinux/{initrd.img,vmlinuz} centos6/

    cp /media/centos7/isolinux/{initrd.img,vmlinuz} centos7/

    cp /media/centos6/isolinux/{boot.msg,splash.jpg,vesamenu.c32} .

    cp /usr/share/syslinux/pxelinux.0 .

    install -m 644 /media/centos6/isolinux/isolinux.cfg pxelinux.cfg/default

    vim pxelinux.cfg/default

    default vesamenu.c32
    timeout 60
    display boot.msg
    menu background splash.jpg
    menu title Welcome to CentOS !
    label linux
      menu label ^Install centos6.9_mini
      kernel centos6/vmlinuz
      append initrd=centos6/initrd.img ks=http://192.168.0.6/ksdir/ks6.cfg
    label linux
      menu label ^Install centos7.5_mini
      kernel centos7/vmlinuz
      append initrd=centos7/initrd.img ks=http://192.168.0.6/ksdir/ks7.cfg
    label local
      menu default
      menu label Boot from ^local drive
      localboot 0xffff
    

    tree

    ├── boot.msg
    ├── centos6
    │   ├── initrd.img
    │   └── vmlinuz
    ├── centos7
    │   ├── initrd.img
    │   └── vmlinuz
    ├── pxelinux.0
    ├── pxelinux.cfg
    │   └── default
    ├── splash.jpg
    └── vesamenu.c32
    
  5. 准备安装源

    mkdir -p /var/www/html/centos/{6,7}

    mount -r /dev/sr0 /var/www/html/centos/6/

    mount -r /dev/sr1 /var/www/html/centos/7/

    mkdir -p /var/www/html/ksdir/

    cp ks6.cfg ks7.cfg /var/www/html/ksdir/

    
    

    service httpd start

    chkconfig httpd on

  6. ss -tnul:查看端口是否打开

    选择网络引导

Cobbler

介绍

Cobbler由python语言开发,是对PXE和Kickstart以及DHCP的封装。融合很多特性,提供了CLI和Web的管理形式。更加方便的实行网络安装,。同时,Cobbler也提供了API接口,使用其它语言也很容易做扩展。它不紧可以安装物理机,同时也支持kvm、xen虚拟化、Guest OS的安装。更多的是它还能结合Puppet等集中化管理软件,实现自动化的管理。

Cobbler 提供以下服务集成:

  1. PXE 服务支持
  2. DHCP 服务管理
  3. DNS 服务管理
  4. 电源管理
  5. Kickstart 服务管理
  6. yum 仓库管理

组成

Cobbler 的配置结构基于一组注册的对象。每个对象表示一个与另一个实体相关联的实体(该对象指向另一个对象,或者另一个对象指向该对象)。当一个对象指向另一个对象时,它就继承了被指向对象的数据,并可覆盖或添加更多特定信息。以下对象类型的定义为:

  • 发行版:表示一个操作系统。它承载了内核和 initrd 的信息,以及内核参数等其他数据。
  • 配置文件:包含一个发行版、一个 kickstart 文件以及可能的存储库,还包含更多特定的内核参数等其他数据。
  • 系统:表示要配给的机器。它包含一个配置文件或一个镜像,还包含 IP 和 MAC 地址、电源管理(地址、凭据、类型)以及更为专业的数据等信息。
  • 存储库:保存一个 yum 或 rsync 存储库的镜像信息。
  • 镜像:可替换一个包含不属于此类别的文件的发行版对象(例如,无法分为内核和 initrd 的对象)。

基于注册的对象以及各个对象之间的关联,Cobbler知道如何更改文件系统以反映具体配置。因为系统配置的内部是抽象的,所以您可以仅关注想要执行的操作。 下面是Cobbler各对象之间的关系图

cobbler各对象关系图.jpg

原理

cobbler原理.jpg

Server端:

  1. 启动Cobbler服务
  2. 进行Cobbler错误检查,执行cobbler check命令
  3. 进行配置同步,执行cobbler sync命令
  4. 复制相关启动文件文件到TFTP目录中
  5. 启动DHCP服务,提供地址分配
  6. DHCP服务分配IP地址
  7. TFTP传输启动文件
  8. Server端接收安装信息
  9. Server端发送ISO镜像与Kickstart文件

Client端:

  1. 客户端以PXE模式启动
  2. 客户端获取IP地址
  3. 通过TFTP服务器获取启动文件
  4. 进入Cobbler安装选择界面
  5. 客户端确定加载信息
  6. 根据配置信息准备安装系统
  7. 加载Kickstart文件
  8. 传输系统安装的其它文件
  9. 传输系统安装的其它文件

命令

cobbler check:检查cobbler配置

cobbler sync:同步配置到dhcp/pxe和数据目录

cobbler list:列出所有的cobbler元素

cobbler import:导入安装的系统镜像

cobbler report:列出各元素的详细信息

cobbler distro:查看导入的发行版系统信息

cobbler profile:查看配置信息

cobbler system:查看添加的系统信息

cobbler reposync:同步yum仓库到本地

[root@Cobbler ~]# cobbler--help

usage

=====

cobbler<distro|profile|system|repo|image|mgmtclass|package|file> ...

       [add|edit|copy|getks*|list|remove|rename|report] [options|--help]

cobbler <aclsetup|buildiso|import|list|replicate|report|reposync|sync|validateks|version|signature|get-loaders|hardlink>[options|--help]

[root@Cobbler ~]# cobblerimport --help

Usage: cobbler [options]

 

Options:

  -h, --help            show this help message and exit

  --arch=ARCH           OS architecture being imported

  --breed=BREED         the breed being imported

  --os-version=OS_VERSION

                        the version beingimported

  --path=PATH           local path or rsync location

  --name=NAME           name, ex ‘RHEL-5‘

  --available-as=AVAILABLE_AS

                        tree is here, don‘tmirror

  --kickstart=KICKSTART_FILE

                        assign this kickstartfile

  --rsync-flags=RSYNC_FLAGS

                        pass additional flagsto rsync

示例

安装

  1. 配置epel的yum源

    [root@Cobbler~]# rpm  -ivh  http://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/x86_64/epel-release-6-8.noarch.rpm
    Retrievinghttp://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/x86_64/epel-release-6-8.noarch.rpm
    warning:/var/tmp/rpm-tmp.PiRbIQ: Header V3 RSA/SHA256 Signature, key ID 0608b895: NOKEY
    Preparing...               ########################################### [100%]
       1:epel-release          ########################################### [100%]
    
  2. 关闭防火墙和禁用selinux

    [root@Cobbler~]# service iptables stop
    [root@Cobbler~]# chkconfig iptables off
    [root@Cobbler~]# service iptables status
    iptables: Firewall is notrunning.
    [root@Cobbler~]# chkconfig --list | grep iptables
    iptables        0:off  1:off   2:off   3:off  4:off   5:off   6:off
    [root@Cobbler~]# getenforce 
    Disabled
    补充:禁用selinux的方法:
    setenfore 0 临时禁用
    sed -i ‘/SELINUX=/d‘/etc/selinux/config &&  echo"SELINUX=disabled">> /etc/selinux/config  永久禁用,重启生效
    
  3. 安装cobbler的必备软件和cobbler

    [root@Cobbler~]# yum -y install  httpd  rsync  tftp-server  xinetd  dhcp cman  pykickstart  debmirror
    [root@Cobbler~]# yum -y install cobbler
    
  4. 执行cobbler check,然后依次解决检查出的问题

    [root@Cobbler~]# cobbler check
    The following are potentialconfiguration items that you may want to fix:
     
    1 : The ‘server‘ field in/etc/cobbler/settings must be set to something other than localhost, orkickstarting features will not work. This should be a resolvable hostname or IP for the boot server asreachable by all machines that will use it.
    2 : For PXE to be functional,the ‘next_server‘ field in /etc/cobbler/settings must be set to something otherthan 127.0.0.1, and should match the IP of the boot server on the PXE network.
    3 : some network boot-loadersare missing from /var/lib/cobbler/loaders, you may run ‘cobbler get-loaders‘ todownload them, or, if you only want to handle x86/x86_64 netbooting, you mayensure that you have installed a *recent* version of the syslinux packageinstalled and can ignore this message entirely. Files in this directory, should you want to support all architectures,should include pxelinux.0, menu.c32, elilo.efi, and yaboot. The ‘cobblerget-loaders‘ command is the easiest way to resolve these requirements.
    4 : change ‘disable‘ to ‘no‘in /etc/xinetd.d/rsync
    5 : comment out ‘dists‘ on/etc/debmirror.conf for proper debian support
    6 : comment out ‘arches‘ on/etc/debmirror.conf for proper debian support
    7 : The default password usedby the sample templates for newly installed machines (default_password_cryptedin /etc/cobbler/settings) is still set to ‘cobbler‘ and should be changed, try:"openssl passwd -1 -salt ‘random-phrase-here‘ ‘your-password-here‘"to generate new one
     
    Restart cobblerd and then run‘cobbler sync‘ to apply changes.
     
    解决办法:
    1:在settings里面设置server 的IP
    2:在settings里面设置next_server的IP
    3:如果当前节点可以访问互联网,执行“cobblerget-loader”命令下载pxelinux.0,menu.c32,elilo.efi, 或yaboot文件,否则,需要安装syslinux程序包,而后复制/usr/share/syslinux/中的pxelinux.0,menu.c32等文件至/var/lib/cobbler/loaders目录中
    4:把/etc/xinetd.d/rsync中的disable的值改为no
    5: 注释/etc/dedmirror.conf文件中的“@dists="sid";”一行
    6: 注释/etc/dedmirror.conf文件中的“@arches="i386";”一行
    7: 执行“openssl passwd -1 -salt$(openssl rand -hex 4)”生成密码,并用其替换/etc/cobbler/settings文件中default_password_crypted参数
    

配置

  1. 修改/etc/xinetd.d/下rsync和tftp中disable值为no

    [root@Cobbler~]# sed -i -e 's/= yes/= no/g' /etc/xinetd.d/rsync
    [root@Cobbler~]# sed -i '/disable/c\\tdisable\t\t\t= no' /etc/xinetd.d/tftp  
    [root@Cobbler~]# grep "disable" /etc/xinetd.d/rsync /etc/xinetd.d/tftp
    /etc/xinetd.d/rsync:    disable = no
    /etc/xinetd.d/tftp:     disable                 = no
    
  2. 修改/etc/cobbler/settings文件相关参数

    [root@Cobbler~]# sed -i "s/manage_dhcp: 0/manage_dhcp: 1/g" /etc/cobbler/settings
    [root@Cobbler~]# sed -i "s/manage_rsync: 0/manage_rsync: 1/g" /etc/cobbler/settings
    [root@Cobbler ~]# sed -i "s/next_server: 127.0.0.1/next_server: 192.168.255.10/g" /etc/cobbler/settings 
    [root@Cobbler~]#  sed -i "s/server: 127.0.0.1/server: 192.168.255.10/g" /etc/cobbler/settings
    [root@Cobbler~]# egrep "manage_dhcp|manage_rsync|server:|next_server" /etc/cobbler/settings
    manage_dhcp:1    #启用cobbler对dhcp的管理
    manage_rsync:1    #启用cobbler对rsync的管理
    next_server:192.168.255.10  #指定next_server的地址
    server:192.168.255.10              #指定cobbler的服务器的ip
    
  3. /etc/dedmirror.conf文件注释掉@dists="sid";@arches="i386

    [root@Cobbler~]# sed -i "s/@dists/#@dists/g" /etc/debmirror.conf
    [root@Cobbler~]# sed -i "s/@arches/#@arches/g" /etc/debmirror.conf
    [root@Cobbler~]# egrep "@dists|@arches" /etc/debmirror.conf
    #@dists="sid";
    #@arches="i386";
    
  4. 修改/etc/cobbler/dhcp.template,配置dhcp相关参数

    subnet 192.168.255.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
         option routers             192.168.255.10;
         option domain-name-servers 192.168.255.10;
         option subnet-mask         255.255.255.0;
         range dynamic-bootp        192.168.255.100 192.168.255.254;
         default-lease-time         21600;
         max-lease-time             43200;
         next-server                $next_server;
    
  5. 生成新的密码文件

    [root@Cobbler~]#  openssl passwd -1 -salt 'cobbler' "123.com"
    $1$cobbler$rK3/2t1JZHrwohtqCqcmg.
    [root@Cobbler ~]# sed -i '/default_password_crypted/c\default_password_crypted:\"$1$cobbler$rK3/2t1JZHrwohtqCqcmg.\"' /etc/cobbler/settings
    [root@Cobbler~]# grep "default_password_crypted" /etc/cobbler/settings
    default_password_crypted:"$1$cobbler$rK3/2t1JZHrwohtqCqcmg."
    
  6. 启动cobbler的各个组件,并设置开机自动启动

    [root@Cobbler~]# /etc/init.d/httpd start
    Startinghttpd: httpd: apr_sockaddr_info_get() failed for Cobbler
    httpd:Could not reliably determine the server‘s fully qualified domain name, using127.0.0.1 for ServerName
                                                              [  OK  ]
    [root@Cobbler~]# /etc/init.d/xinetd start
    Startingxinetd:                                          [  OK  ]
    [root@Cobbler~]# /etc/init.d/cobblerd start
    Startingcobbler daemon:                                   [  OK  ]
    [root@Cobbler~]# /sbin/chkconfig httpd on
    [root@Cobbler~]# /sbin/chkconfig dhcpd on
    [root@Cobbler~]# /sbin/chkconfig xinetd on
    [root@Cobbler~]# /sbin/chkconfig cobblerd on
    [root@Cobbler~]# service dhcpd start
    Startingdhcpd:                                           [FAILED]
    dhcp启动失败,原因是没有同步cobbler的配置,现在cobbler还没接管dhcp,执行cobbler rsync之后就可以
    
  7. 执行cobbler get-loaders命令,在线下载pxelinux.0,menu.c32,elilo.efi,或yaboot文件

    [root@Cobbler~]# cobbler get-loaders
    task started:2015-06-01_170259_get_loaders
    task started (id=DownloadBootloader Content, time=Mon Jun  117:02:59 2015)
    path/var/lib/cobbler/loaders/README already exists, not overwriting existingcontent, use --force if you wish to update
    path/var/lib/cobbler/loaders/COPYING.elilo already exists, not overwriting existingcontent, use --force if you wish to update
    path/var/lib/cobbler/loaders/COPYING.yaboot already exists, not overwritingexisting content, use --force if you wish to update
    path/var/lib/cobbler/loaders/COPYING.syslinux already exists, not overwritingexisting content, use --force if you wish to update
    path/var/lib/cobbler/loaders/elilo-ia64.efi already exists, not overwritingexisting content, use --force if you wish to update
    path/var/lib/cobbler/loaders/yaboot already exists, not overwriting existingcontent, use --force if you wish to update
    path/var/lib/cobbler/loaders/pxelinux.0 already exists, not overwriting existingcontent, use --force if you wish to update
    path/var/lib/cobbler/loaders/menu.c32 already exists, not overwriting existingcontent, use --force if you wish to update
    path/var/lib/cobbler/loaders/grub-x86.efi already exists, not overwriting existingcontent, use --force if you wish to update
    path/var/lib/cobbler/loaders/grub-x86_64.efi already exists, not overwritingexisting content, use --force if you wish to update
    *** TASK COMPLETE ***
    
  8. 重启cobbler,并执行cobbler sync使其同步

    [root@Cobbler~]# service cobblerd restart
    Stoppingcobbler daemon:                                   [  OK  ]
    Startingcobbler daemon:                                   [  OK  ]
    [root@Cobbler~]# cobbler sync
    taskstarted: 2015-06-01_170502_sync
    taskstarted (id=Sync, time=Mon Jun  117:05:02 2015)
    runningpre-sync triggers
    cleaningtrees
    removing:/var/lib/tftpboot/grub/images
    copyingbootloaders
    tryinghardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/pxelinux.0 -> /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.0
    tryinghardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/menu.c32 -> /var/lib/tftpboot/menu.c32
    tryinghardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/yaboot -> /var/lib/tftpboot/yaboot
    tryinghardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/grub-x86.efi ->/var/lib/tftpboot/grub/grub-x86.efi
    tryinghardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/grub-x86_64.efi ->/var/lib/tftpboot/grub/grub-x86_64.efi
    copyingdistros to tftpboot
    copyingimages
    generatingPXE configuration files
    generatingPXE menu structure
    renderingDHCP files
    generating/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
    renderingTFTPD files
    generating/etc/xinetd.d/tftp
    cleaninglink caches
    renderingRsync files
    runningpost-sync triggers
    runningpython triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/sync/post/*
    runningpython trigger cobbler.modules.sync_post_restart_services
    running:dhcpd -t -q
    receivedon stdout: 
    receivedon stderr: 
    running:service dhcpd restart
    receivedon stdout: Starting dhcpd: [  OK  ]
    receivedon stderr: 
    runningshell triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/sync/post/*
    runningpython triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/change/*
    runningpython trigger cobbler.modules.scm_track
    runningshell triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/change/*
    ***TASK COMPLETE ***
     
    同步完成没报错之后,现在重新启动dhcp,发现可以正常启动了
    [root@Cobbler~]# service dhcpd restart
    Shuttingdown dhcpd:                                       [  OK  ]
    Startingdhcpd:                                            [  OK  ]
     
    最后执行cobblercheck重新检查一下,没有报错
    [root@Cobbler~]# cobbler check
    Noconfiguration problems found.  Allsystems go.
    此时cobbler已经安装配置完成,下面开始进行导入镜像等管理操作
    

使用

  1. 导入镜像文件,使用命令cobbler import

    # 查看帮助信息
    [root@Cobbler~]# cobbler import --help
    
    Usage:cobbler [options]
    
     
    
    Options:
    
      -h, --help            show this help message and exit
    
      --arch=ARCH           OS architecture being imported
    
      --breed=BREED         the breed being imported
    
      --os-version=OS_VERSION   the version being imported
    
      --path=PATH           local path or rsync location
    
      --name=NAME           name, ex ‘RHEL-5‘
    
      --available-as=AVAILABLE_AS  tree is here, don‘t mirror
    
      --kickstart=KICKSTART_FILE  assign this kickstart file
    
      --rsync-flags=RSYNC_FLAGS  pass additional flags to rsync
      
    # 挂载镜像文件到/media下
    [root@Cobbler~]# mount /dev/cdrom /media/
    mount:block device /dev/sr0 is write-protected, mounting read-only
    
    # 导入镜像
    [root@Cobbler~]# cobbler import --path=/media --name=CentOS6.4 --arch=x86_64
    taskstarted: 2015-06-01_172716_import
    taskstarted (id=Media import, time=Mon Jun  117:27:16 2015)
    Founda candidate signature: breed=redhat, version=rhel6
    Founda matching signature: breed=redhat, version=rhel6
    Addingdistros from path /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/CentOS6.4-x86_64:
    creatingnew distro: CentOS6.4-x86_64
    tryingsymlink: /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/CentOS6.4-x86_64 ->/var/www/cobbler/links/CentOS6.4-x86_64
    creatingnew profile: CentOS6.4-x86_64
    associatingrepos
    checkingfor rsync repo(s)
    checkingfor rhn repo(s)
    checkingfor yum repo(s)
    startingdescent into /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/CentOS6.4-x86_64 for CentOS6.4-x86_64
    processingrepo at : /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/CentOS6.4-x86_64
    need toprocess repo/comps: /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/CentOS6.4-x86_64
    lookingfor /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/CentOS6.4-x86_64/repodata/*comps*.xml
    Keepingrepodata as-is :/var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/CentOS6.4-x86_64/repodata
    ***TASK COMPLETE ***
    
    # 查看导入的镜像
    [root@Cobbler~]# cobbler distro list
       CentOS6.4-x86_64
    [root@Cobbler~]# cobbler list
    distros:
       CentOS6.4-x86_64
    profiles:
       CentOS6.4-x86_64
    systems:
    repos:
    images:
    mgmtclasses:
    packages:
    files:
    
  2. 生成kickstart文件,并绑定到profile中

    # Kickstart的模版文件在/var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts中,在导入镜像的时候不指定kickstart文件,就会使用默认的模版文件,现在我们拷贝 一份,进行自定义修改
    [root@Cobbler~]# cd /var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts
    [root@Cobblerkickstarts]# cp sample.ks centos6.4x86_64.cfg
    [root@Cobbler kickstarts]# cobbler profile edit --name=CentOS6.4-x86_64--kickstart=/var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/centos6.4x86_64.cfg
    
  3. 修改centos6.4x86_64.cfg文件进行定制

    # 默认的kickstart文件sampl.ks注释:
    
    #platform=x86, AMD64, or Intel EM64T
    # System authorization information
    auth --useshadow --enablemd5    #用户登录认证
    # System bootloader configuration
    bootloader --location=mbr #mbr引导
    # Partition clearing information
    clearpart --all --initlabel#默认清除所以分区
    # Use text mode install
    text    #默认以文本模式安装
    # Firewall configuration
    firewall --enabled #防火墙默认开启
    # Run the Setup Agent on first boot
    firstboot --disable      #禁用启动代理
    # System keyboard
    keyboard us     #默认英文键盘
    # System language
    lang en_US      #默认语言英文
    # Use network installation
    url --url=$tree    #网络安装路径
    # If any cobbler repo definitions were referenced in thekickstart profile, include them here.
    $yum_repo_stanza     #默认的yum仓库
    # Network information
    $SNIPPET(‘network_config‘) 
    # Reboot after installation
    reboot   #安装完成后重启
    #Root password
    rootpw --iscrypted $default_password_crypted   #密码是我们/etc/cobbler/settings设置密码
    # SELinux configuration
    selinux --disabled   #默认关闭selinux
    # Do not configure the X Window System
    skipx  #默认没有安装图形界面
    # System timezone
    timezone America/New_York  #默认时区是美国/纽约
    # Install OS instead of upgrade
    install   #定义的是安装系统而不是升级系统
    # Clear the Master Boot Record
    zerombr   #默认清空所有的mbr
    # Allow anaconda to partition the system as needed
    autopart   #默认自动分区
    #下面就是Cobbler自定执行的一些脚本,我就不解释了。
    %pre
    $SNIPPET(‘log_ks_pre‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘kickstart_start‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘pre_install_network_config‘)
    # Enable installation monitoring
    $SNIPPET(‘pre_anamon‘)
    %packages
    $SNIPPET(‘func_install_if_enabled‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘puppet_install_if_enabled‘)
    %post
    $SNIPPET(‘log_ks_post‘)
    # Start yum configuration 
    $yum_config_stanza
    # End yum configuration
    $SNIPPET(‘post_install_kernel_options‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘post_install_network_config‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘func_register_if_enabled‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘puppet_register_if_enabled‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘download_config_files‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘koan_environment‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘redhat_register‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘cobbler_register‘)
    # Enable post-install boot notification
    $SNIPPET(‘post_anamon‘)
    # Start final steps
    $SNIPPET(‘kickstart_done‘)
    # End final steps
    
    # 自定义的centos6.4x86_64.cfg文件
    
    auth  --useshadow --enablemd5
    bootloader--location=mbr
    clearpart--all --initlabel
    text
    firewall--enabled
    firstboot--disable
    keyboardus
    langen_US
    url--url=$tree
    $yum_repo_stanza
    $SNIPPET(‘network_config‘)
    reboot
     
    rootpw--iscrypted $default_password_crypted
    selinux--disabled
    skipx
    timezone  Asia/Shanghai
    install
    zerombr
    autopart
    part/boot --fstype="ext4" --size=200
    partswap --fstype="swap" --size=4096
    part /--fstype="ext4" --grow --size=1
     
    %pre
    $SNIPPET(‘log_ks_pre‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘kickstart_start‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘pre_install_network_config‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘pre_anamon‘)
     
    %packages
    $SNIPPET(‘func_install_if_enabled‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘puppet_install_if_enabled‘)
    @base
    @chinese-support
    @development
    @system-admin-tools
    %post--nochroot
    $SNIPPET(‘log_ks_post_nochroot‘)
    %end
    %post
    $SNIPPET(‘log_ks_post‘)
    $yum_config_stanza
    $SNIPPET(‘post_install_kernel_options‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘post_install_network_config‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘func_register_if_enabled‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘puppet_register_if_enabled‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘download_config_files‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘koan_environment‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘redhat_register‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘cobbler_register‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘post_anamon‘)
    $SNIPPET(‘kickstart_done‘)
    
  4. 重启cobbler,并同步

    [root@Cobbler~]# service cobblerd restart
    Stoppingcobbler daemon:                                   [  OK  ]
    Startingcobbler daemon:                                   [  OK  ]
    [root@Cobbler~]# cobbler check
    Noconfiguration problems found.  All systemsgo.
    [root@Cobbler~]# cobbler sync
    taskstarted: 2015-06-01_175813_sync
    taskstarted (id=Sync, time=Mon Jun  117:58:13 2015)
    runningpre-sync triggers
    cleaningtrees
    removing:/var/www/cobbler/images/CentOS6.4-x86_64
    removing:/var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default
    removing:/var/lib/tftpboot/grub/grub-x86.efi
    removing:/var/lib/tftpboot/grub/efidefault
    removing:/var/lib/tftpboot/grub/images
    removing:/var/lib/tftpboot/grub/grub-x86_64.efi
    removing:/var/lib/tftpboot/images/CentOS6.4-x86_64
    removing:/var/lib/tftpboot/s390x/profile_list
    copyingbootloaders
    tryinghardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/grub-x86.efi ->/var/lib/tftpboot/grub/grub-x86.efi
    tryinghardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/grub-x86_64.efi ->/var/lib/tftpboot/grub/grub-x86_64.efi
    copyingdistros to tftpboot
    copyingfiles for distro: CentOS6.4-x86_64
    tryinghardlink /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/CentOS6.4-x86_64/images/pxeboot/vmlinuz-> /var/lib/tftpboot/images/CentOS6.4-x86_64/vmlinuz
    tryinghardlink /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/CentOS6.4-x86_64/images/pxeboot/initrd.img-> /var/lib/tftpboot/images/CentOS6.4-x86_64/initrd.img
    copyingimages
    generatingPXE configuration files
    generatingPXE menu structure
    copyingfiles for distro: CentOS6.4-x86_64
    tryinghardlink /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/CentOS6.4-x86_64/images/pxeboot/vmlinuz-> /var/www/cobbler/images/CentOS6.4-x86_64/vmlinuz
    tryinghardlink /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/CentOS6.4-x86_64/images/pxeboot/initrd.img-> /var/www/cobbler/images/CentOS6.4-x86_64/initrd.img
    Writingtemplate files for CentOS6.4-x86_64
    renderingDHCP files
    generating/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
    renderingTFTPD files
    generating/etc/xinetd.d/tftp
    processingboot_files for distro: CentOS6.4-x86_64
    cleaninglink caches
    renderingRsync files
    runningpost-sync triggers
    runningpython triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/sync/post/*
    runningpython trigger cobbler.modules.sync_post_restart_services
    running:dhcpd -t -q
    receivedon stdout: 
    receivedon stderr: 
    running:service dhcpd restart
    receivedon stdout: Shutting down dhcpd: [ OK  ]
    Startingdhcpd: [  OK  ]
     
    receivedon stderr: 
    runningshell triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/sync/post/*
    runningpython triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/change/*
    runningpython trigger cobbler.modules.scm_track
    runningshell triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/change/*
    ***TASK COMPLETE ***
    
  5. 客户机开机从网卡启动,测试

补充

cobbler添加pxe菜单密码

  1. 生成hash密码

    支持两种不同类型的密码:
    sha1passmypassword
    或
    opensslpasswd -1 -salt sXiKzkus mypassword
    我这里选择后者
        [root@Cobblercobbler]# openssl passwd -1 -salt cobbler cobbler
    $1$cobbler$M6SE55xZodWc9.vAKLJs6.
    
  2. 编辑配置文件pxedefault.template,添加如下

    [root@Cobblercobbler]# vim /etc/cobbler/pxe/pxedefault.template
    
    DEFAULTmenu
    
    PROMPT0
    
    MENUTITLE Cobbler | http://www.cobblerd.org/
    
    MENU MASTERPASSWD  $1$cobbler$M6SE55xZodWc9.vAKLJs6. ########
    
    TIMEOUT200
    
    TOTALTIMEOUT6000
    
    ONTIMEOUT$pxe_timeout_profile
    
     
    
    LABELlocal
    
            MENU LABEL (local)
    
            MENU DEFAULT
    
            LOCALBOOT -1
    
     
    
    $pxe_menu_items
    
     
    
    MENUend
    
  3. 编辑pxeprofile文件,添加如下

    [root@Cobblercobbler]# vim /etc/cobbler/pxe/pxeprofile.template    
    
    LABEL$profile_name
    
            MENU PASSWD ########
    
            kernel $kernel_path
    
            $menu_label
    
            $append_line
    
            ipappend 2
    
  4. 重新检查配置,并同步使其生效

    [root@Cobblercobbler]# cobbler check
    [root@Cobblercobbler]# cobbler sync
    

下次客户端装系统的时候,选择系统菜单时就需要输入密码了

配置文件

cobbler配置文件目录:

  • /etc/cobbler/settings:cobbler主配置文件

  • /etc/cobbler/dhcp.template:DHCP服务的配置模板

  • /etc/cobbler/tftpd.template:tftp服务的配置模板

  • /etc/cobbler/rsync.template:rsync服务的配置模板

  • /etc/cobbler/iso:iso模板配置文件

  • /etc/cobbler/pxe:pxe模板文件

  • /etc/cobbler/power:电源的配置文件

  • /etc/cobbler/users.conf:Web服务授权配置文件

  • /etc/cobbler/users.digest:用于web访问的用户名密码配置文件

  • /etc/cobbler/dnsmasq.template:DNS服务的配置模板

  • /etc/cobbler/modules.conf:Cobbler模块配置文件

cobbler数据目录:

  • /var/lib/cobbler/config:配置文件
  • /var/lib/cobbler/triggers:Cobbler命令
  • /var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts :默认存放kickstart文件
  • /var/lib/cobbler/loaders:存放的各种引导程序
  • /var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd.leases :dhcp租期缓存文件
  • /tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default :pxe配置文件
  • /var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts_*.ks:ks模板文件

系统镜像目录:

  • /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror:导入的系统镜像列表
  • /var/www/cobbler/images:导入的系统镜像启动文件
  • /var/www/cobbler/repo_mirror :yum源存储目录

日志目录:

  • /var/log/cobbler/install.log:客户端系统安装日志
  • /var/log/cobbler/cobbler.log:cobbler日志

web端

  1. 安装web端

    yum install cobbler-web -y
    
  2. 设置用户名和密码

    为已存在的用户cobbler重置密码
    
    htdigest /etc/cobbler/users.digest "Cobbler" cobbler  
    
    添加新用户
    
    htdigest /etc/cobbler/users.digest "Cobbler" your_newname 
    
  3. 修改配置文件,允许cobbler从web登录

    sed-i ‘s/authn_denyall/authn_configfile/g‘ /etc/cobbler/modules.conf
    
  4. 重启Cobbler与http

    /etc/init.d/cobblerd restart 
    
    /etc/init.d/httpd restart
    
  5. 访问cobbler web界面,配置管理

    1. 在浏览器上输入http://cobber_ip/cobber_web打开web界面,输入刚才设置的用户名和密码,进入后台

      1.jpg

    2. 后台界面
      2.jpg
    3. 导入镜像

      选择Import DVD,
      
      在prefix项中要填写导入光盘的名字,只有不与先前的名字冲突,这里可以随意填。
      
      在Arch项中选择光盘的类型,是i386、x86_64、ai64等。
      
      在Breed项中选择系统的类型,CentOS、Debian、Ubuntu中的一种。
      
      在Path项中填写光盘或ISO镜像包挂载的位置,路径一定要填写正确。
      
      最后点击 run开始导入,过程很慢,可以通过日志查看导入状态
      
      3.jpg
    4. 查看日志中的导入状态,可以发现正在运行,第二个是之前用命令导入的,现在状态为complate完成
      4.1.jpg

      等到state状态为complate时,导入已完成
      4.2.jpg

      查看生成的distros,若生成刚导入的系统,表示没问题,如没有生成需要查看日志,了解具体情况
      5.jpg
    5. 下面我们开始配置kickstart文件。点击kickstart template,在右边点击创建新的kickstart文件,填写你准备好的kickstart内容即可
      5.1.jpg
      5.2.jpg

      修改profile文件,让刚导入的镜像和刚创建的kickstart文件相关联,选择redhat6.4x86_64。点击edit
      5.3.jpg

      修改kickstart的路径,把刚才我们创建的kickstart的文件路径写进去,保存即可。
      5.4.jpg

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