// (‘重读) (_轻声) (x ~ x连读) (#跟读) (##听读) (+##复习时跟/听读) (xxx下划线是测试题答案) (天蓝色是生词) (蓝色是词组习惯搭配)
L05U01 1-1 Listening (Jessica’s class reunion)
Jessica is 35 years old.
She graduated from middle school 20 years ago.
This year her middle school class had its 20 years reunion.
## All ~ of her classmates and teachers were invited to attend.
It was going to be at a hotel near where their school used to be.
+# (Their reunion was going to be held at hotel near where their school used to be.)
## Like may other buildings, the school had been torn down.
+## It had been replaced by some apartment buildings.
1) # At first, she 'wasn't sure if she could go to the reunion.
2) +# One reason was that there 'wasn't 'anyone in particular she wanted to see.
3) ## Another reason was that she was very busy.
4) +# She was a working mother, with a 'boy 8 years old and a husband who was rarely at home.
# Going to the reunion meant that she would have to arrange for someone to take care of things while she was away.
That wouldn’t be easy.
She didn't want to take her boy with her, and her husband wouldn't take time off from work.
Then +## she got a message from 'Sharon, one of her old 'classmates.
# Sharon was contacting people from their class and was urging everyone to come.
+# In their school days, Sharon was class monitor, and now she was helping to organize the reunion.
1) They exchanged messages and Jessica said she couldn't make it. (she wouldn’t be able to come.)
2) Then Sharon gave her a call, and they told for almost an hour.
3) Sharon really wanted her to come, and so did coupe of Jessica's old friends.
4) +## They were all wondering how she was doing.
None of them had seen or heard from her since graduation.
# They were especially curious since she 'hadn't gone to their first reunion 10 years before.
1) # Jessica decided to arrange things so that she could go.
2) +## Her husband finally agreed to take care things while she was away.
3) He agreed to do it because her mother had offered to come and stay for awhile so Jessica could attend the reunion.
4) Since he and her mother didn't get along, he decided to change his schedule and work from home for a few days.
He really didn't want her mother to come, thought he didn't say so.
+## Once she got ~ to the reunion, she was shocked.
## Everyone had aged so much, and many were out of shape.
+# Some who used to be good looking had lost their looks completely and anthers looked much better than before.
(+## They had lost their looks completely.)
## It was strange how time had changed people in such different ways.
Anyway, she decided that since she was there, she would try to enjoy it.
L05U01 1-2 Vocabulary ()
## To replace something means that to put something else in ~ its place.
## When something gets old and begins to break down, it may needs to be replaced.
(When a person leaves a company, the person may need to be replaced by someone else.)
(The person who replaces someone is the person’s replacement.)
## To tear something down means to break it apart.
To tear a person down means to hurt them by saying negative things about them.
+## (It may take a long time to tear down a big building.)
(When the old school building was torn down, it was replaced by a hotel.)
+# (The earthquake destroyed several buildings and left many people without homes.)
+## To construct something means to build it or put it together.
Large construction projects include buildings, bridges and organisations.
+## The opposite of constructive is destructive(tear down).
(Constructive comments in a discussion can be very helpful.)
+# (Destructive comments in a discussion can be very negative and cause bad feelings.)
(To be constructive means to help build an idea or process by contributing something helpful, such as positive feedback.)
To organize something means to arrange things in an orderly, logical way.
An organization is something has logical structure, such as a well managed company.
+## (Some people are poorly organised, so they have a hard time finding things.)
+## (They are too disorganized to get anything down on time.)
+## (When things are not arranged well, you need to organise.)
# (An event or party can be well organised, poorly organized or completely disorganized.)
To support something such as an idea, it’s to help or add strength to it.
## The opposite of support is to undermine or weaken.
#(To work against someone means to 'undermine them, or make then less 'effective.)
## (They are too disorganised to get anything done one time.)
## (If you support someone, it means you are trying to help them succeed.)
## Public information is available to anyone who wants to know it.
+## If a store is open to the public, it means anyone can come in.
(A public company makes its share available for purchase by any investor.)
## (Many people make money by 'investing in public companies.)
+## (Anyone can invest in a public company by buying its shares.)
## Private information is not open to everyone, but it’s only available to trusted friends and family.
# (You had better keep information about your passports private or you may lose a lot.)
Information about one’s secret hopes and dreams is usually private.
## (Most people keep their personal information private.)
+## (The password to your bank account is private information.)
+## Confidential information is secret information.
+## Confidential information is not supposed to be share with others.
## (Revealing confidential information may be illegal.)
+# (The details of a secret design or how a company makes decisions are often confidential.)
Gossip is information that is often exchanged because it’s exciting or fun, even though it may not be true.
Office gossip is often entertaining, but it can also be damaging.
## (Gossip may hurt or embarrass the person being gossiped about.)
(When people gossip, they may hurt someone by spreading false or embarrassing information.)
(Gossip is information that may made up, or exaggerate.)
Opinions are what people think or feel about something, as a pose to factual information.
## (Someone’s opinion is what they think or feel about something.)
+## (Opinions are often differ, and when they do people may argue.)
+# Factual information is based on facts or evidence, but opinions are what people think or feel.
L05U01 1-3 Dialogue (Make a complain)
## M: Is this the Ace service center?
W: Yes it is sir.
May I help you.
M: Yes, I’m calling to complain about your service.
W: Certainly sir, I’m sorry to hear that.
## Let me see if there's something I can do to help you.
Please tell me what happened.
# M: I ordered a ‘new washing machine on your website.
It was more than a week ago.
# W: Before you go on(before you continue), may I have your order number, please.
M: Sure, it’s ABC1005.
W: ## And may I have your last four digits of your social security number?
M: I don’t have a social security number.
I’m an illegal alien.
W: Very funny sir.
Ok then, what is your first pet’s name?
M: Mr. Kitty
W: OK, I see order information.
Now, what’s the problem?
M: ## I ordered the washing machine and paid for it.
# Then I chose a delivery date from a set of choices.
It was supposed to be deliver today, but it’s still not here.
W: Did anyone contact you?
M: No, I haven’t receive any messages.
W: I’m sorry to here that sir.
W: # I see here that the washing machine you ordered hasn’t arrived in our warehouse yet.
## I can’t be delivered until next week.
M: ## You don’t even have it yet?
Why haven’t I been notified?
I told time off from work to be at home today.
W: You should've been notified by phone or email.
M: I wasn’t.
I haven’t received any notification.
This is very upsetting.
W: I understand sir.
I’m really sorry for this.
M: Being sorry isn’t enough.
I’m really upset.
This is no way to do business.
W: Yes sir, I understand.
W: I can sent you a $50 gift coupon as a way to express our precaution for your patience.
M: I don’t care about the money.
I don’t blame you of course, but I want to you to know how disappointed I am with Ace.
## I expected much better service.
W: I’m really sorry sir.
## Is there anything else I can do for you?
M: Yes there is.
## I’d like to cancel the order and get a refund.
W: I’m sorry to hear that sir, but I understand.
I’ll see to it that you get your refund.
M: How long will ~ it take before I 'get the refund.
W: # You 'should see the credit on your next month's credit card billing statement.
M: Thanks for your help.
W: # You’re welcome sir, and once again, please accept my apologies.
//Speaking——20171020, 4 stars, 94’, +70, +114, +30
Grammer——20171020, 4 stars, 100’, +66, +117, +66
//Matching——20171020, 4 stars, 100’, +80, +207, +80
L05U01 2-1 Listening (Class reunion II)
Jessica’s 20 year class reunion was held at a fancy hotel.
## When she arrived, she wasn’t sure she was in the right place.
## At first she didn’t recognize anyone.
## She felt a bit awkward and out of place.
But it wasn’t long before a strange man came up to her.
He was already losing his hair and he was wearing thick glasses.
“Don’t you remember me?” He asked.
When he said who he was, she barely remembered him especially since he had changed so much (a lot).
Then he told her that he had alway had a crush on her.
1) He said she looked beautiful and he immediately took a selfie of them, with his arm tight around her waist.
2) This made her feel a bit strange(uncomfortable).
3) She smiled at him and pretended to be happy to see him.
4) But in fact, she wasn’t how to react through he seem nice. (wasn’t happy at all)
She finally excused herself and went to the lady’s room.
She was beginning to regard having come to the reunion.
She had aways been shy and she still was.
# When she returned to the party, Sharon invited her to sit at her table.
# Dinner was going to be served soon, and some of the classmates were going to give speeches.
+# Sharon asked Jessica to say few words too, because people were curious.
This was a surprise.
# Jessica had 'never been very popular and she didn’t think everyone had 'noticed her.
She had alway felt like an outsider with only a couple of close friends.
Still, she had been one of the best students, and people remembered her.
# As the evening wore on Jessica began to really enjoy herself.
(wear on 缓慢地进行；时间消逝)
She told to her old friends, and was amazed by how some others had changed.
+## For example, Tom used to be a good-looking and athletic.
He was one of the most popular students and a star basketball player.
His one problem was math.
## He had had a hard time in math, especially in geometry.
This was because he wasn’t a logical thinker.
Except for basketball, he didn’t want to do anything unless it was easy.
## Tom was no longer good-looking.
# His nose, which had always been large, had grown even larger.
He had also gained a lot of weight.
## His wife had left him, so for the first time ever, he was alone.
+# He looked lonely and depressed, not at all like he used to be.
Steve was a nobody in middle school.
People hardly noticed him.
+# He was small, quiet and a 'bit ugly, with crooked teeth.
What he was good at was english.
His english was even better than their teachers.
After graduated, he went to a low-rent university and eventually draped out.
+## For a while he worked as a tour guide.
# Then, 10 years ago, he and some friends started a little company which is now a great success.
In fact, he had became a rich, generous man.
+# He had a 'nice, warm smile and his success hadn’t gone to his head.
(go to one’s head 冲昏头脑；使自负，得意洋洋)
+## It was a pleasure to be around him.
1) ## Betty used to be the most beautiful girl in school.
2) She wasn’t very smart but she was a great singer.
3) ## She made a video of her singing, and it went viral.
(go viral 疯狂传播, 快速传播)
4) She became famous overnight, but it only lasted for about two years.
After that her fans lost interesting in her.
+## She tried to become an actress, but she failed.
She had been too stiff and nervous in front of camera.
Betty had a nice husband who seem to adore her.
The one tragedy in her life happened about 5 years ago when she lost her daughter to a rare form of cancer.
+## Because of that, her hair had begun to turn grey.
+## Jessica couldn’t help but feel sorry for her.
Betty had had such high hopes and tremendous energy as a girl, but things didn’t work out.
And then, there was Jone.
Jone used to the school bully.
He had been big, strong and mean.
He hadn’t been nice to anybody.
It seem that he was alway angry and readied to hit someone.
After graduating, he joined the army(military) and went to overseas to fight in the war.
He saw many people die, and he grew to hate fighting of any kind.
Then one day, he was nearly killed when the helicopter he was in was shoot down.
He survived the crash but he lost a leg and was hospitalised for nearly a year.
Now he had completely changed.
He had gentle, kind eyes and beautiful smile.
He was working for an organisation that provides support for elderly people.
From Jessica’s point of view, Jone had turned out to be a wonderful surprise.
In the end, Jessica was glad she went her reunion.
It was interesting to see how people had changed through the years.
Still, she was happy to get home and ~ appreciate everything that she had.
L05U01 2-2 Vocabulary (Emotions)
## A broken heart is what happens when a love relationship is broken off.
Someone with a broken heart is usually depressed, which means they feel awful and don’t enjoy life.
(If someone you love breaks off the relationship it feels like the end of the world.)
## (She broke his heart when she told him their relationship was over.)
To fall in love with someone can be a wonderful experience, with powerful emotions.
People in love often share deepest feeling and emotions, which is intimacy.
(When you are in love with someone you can hardly think of anything else.)
## (The emotions of love have inspired poets throughout history.)
(Being in love can blind you from seeing from they really are, … make a bad decision.)
+# To find someone ~ attractive usually means there is a physical desire to be with them.
Physical attraction may sometimes lead to love, but in many cases it may only lead to a short term sexual relationship.
(Physically attractive people attract people of the opposite or same sex, depending on their sexual orientation.) (方向；定向；适应；情况介绍；向东方)
+## (Many women use makeup to make themselves more physical attractive.)
+# To flirt with someone means to let him or her know that you want to be approached.
Some people use their eyes or smile to flirt.
(If someone is flirting with you, they are coming on to you.
Knowing how to respond to such an invitation is a skill many people don’t have.
They may not recognize that fact that someone is inviting them to approach.)
(The skills of flirting is sometimes that comes naturally to some people, but for many people, they just act awkwardly.)
# Jealousy is what often happens when two people 'compete for the love of the same person.
The one who loses may be very jealous of the other and try to break things up.
# (If two men are rivals for the same woman, they may dislike or even hate each other because of jealousy.) (情敌)
+## (Feelings of jealousy may last for a long time and can destroy friendships.)
+##(A jealous person often wants to process the person they love.)
Some people can remain calm even everyone else is confused and upset.
## When you are calm, you can think clearly and make good decisions.
(Sometimes it’s best to control your emotions and be calm rather than react in anger.)
# ('Some people are easily upset and 'have a hard time _controlling their emotions.)
## (People who can’t control their emotions are difficult to work with.)
+## (Their actions can upset everyone around them.)
## People react to disappointing news in different ways.
Sometimes they get discouraged and lose their confidence.
+## Sometimes they get depressed and begin to cry or even get drunk.
(When disappointed, it’s much better to face the facts and decide what to do next than get discouraged.)
(When disappointed, be calm, and think clearly and act constructively.)
+## (Discourage news can cause people to lose their confidence.)
+## (She was really disappointed when she failed to pass the examination.)
+## People are furious when they are extremely angry.
People who are furious at each other may end up fighting or trying to hurt each other.
# (Some people become 'furious when they are 'driving and another driver cuts in front of them.)
+## (When people are furious at each other they often yell 'and insult each other.)
## To be excited is usually a good thing.
People can become excited while watching a soccer match and seeing their teams score a goal.
## The opposite of exciting is dull or boring.
+# (Everyone was excited when they heard that their 'favourite 'team had won the game.)
+# (He 'expected the game to be exciting, but it was so boring that he left early.)
## Someone is terrified if they are extremely afraid and shaking with fear.
Terrified people were often scream and run away from whatever threading them.
(He was terrified when he thought the building he was in was going to collapse in the earthquake.)
(Being in the earthquake was a terrifying experience, especially for the children.)
L05U01 2-3 Dialogue (Office Gossip)
A: ## What are you so excited about?
B: Have you heard?
Joe and Sylvia are getting a divorce.
A: No, I haven’t. But I’m not surprised.
# To be honest, I never expected their marriage to last very long.
## She’s so aggressive and bossy.
B: Well I think Joe had an affair.
# (To have an affair means for a married person to have a romantic relationship outside of the marriage.)
## He met someone on a business trip.
A: Really? How did you find THAT out?
B: Sherry told me a few minutes ago.
A: Oh, Sherry.
She is a such a gossip.
+# (To gossip is to talk about or spread rumours about the lives of other people.)
I wouldn’t believe anything she says.
B: No, really.
This time I think we can trust her.
I don’t think she’s making it up.
A: Wow, this IS news.
What about their baby?
B: I don’t know.
I haven’t heard anything about that.
A: Well that’s too bad.
Even thought I don’t like either one of them, I feel sorry for them.
It so sad when this happens, especially for the child.
B: Yes, really.
It’s easy to get caught up of all the gossip and forget to think about the serious consequences.
A: Still, I can’t say I’m surprised.
## Can you imagine living with someone like that?
+## (She can’t imagine living with someone like Sylvia.)
B: No, I can’t.
She is so self-centred.
A: And what about him?
B: ## I don’t know him well, but he seems nice.
A: I think so too.
## I’m not sure how he ever fell for her.
B: Are you kidding?
Hormones. You have to admit that she’s physically attractive.
(Hormones are chemicals in the body that control how people feel.)
(Physically attractive people attract people of the opposite or same sex, depending on their sexual orientation.)
He probably couldn’t help himself.
And now it seems he has fallen for someone else.
# (To fall for someone means to fall in love with them.)
A: I guess he can’t control himself.
# I’ve heard he has a drinking problem, too.
B: Ah, I wasn’t aware of that.
Well, what’s new, right?
Something is never change.
A: That’s for sure.
Hey, what about lunch?
B: No, thanks.
I’d better get back to work.
L05U01 3-1 Listening (Health food company)
1) Emma’s Best is a small but growing health food company.
2) It was started in 1995 by a married couple who were tired of working for large companies.
3) The two founders were Ed and Emma Smith, both health-conscious vegetarians.
4) Despite the risks, Ed and Emma wanted to start their own business.
## They knew it would be hard work, but they were determined to try.
## Their plan was to create a business that provide health food to busy people.
They wanted to be something they can be proud of.
# When they started the company, organic food was becoming more popular.
# People were becoming more 'food conscious and worried about 'food safety.
+## (To be more conscious of something means to be more aware of it.)
+# In fact, people were willing to pay higher prices for food that was free of _harmful 'chemicals.
In addition, an increasing number of people had little to go shopping and cook at home.
They wanted meals that were healthy but easy to prepare.
# There were very few frozen meals available at a time and none of them were vegetarian or organic.
There was a gap in the market.
1) +# Ed and Emma immediately saw the opportunity and launched their first product. (release to the market)
It was a frozen pasta meal with a mix vegetables and a delicious cream sauce.
# The market response was 'enthusiastic and profitable beyond their expectations.
+## Their product was an instant success.
To their surprise, it was soon being eaten by millions of people(by a wide variety of people), not only vegetarian or those who interested in organic foods.
It was being bought because it was easy to prepare and it tasted good.
And of course, it was health.
2) ## Other products followed in rapid succession.
3) As a result, at the end of 5 years the company was producing over 100 frozen meals.
4) Since then they have increased the number of meals to over 150, including pizzas, sandwiches and snacks.
## Their foods are carried by 'natural food stores and supermarkets throughout North America.
Although they have expanded their production facilities and increased the number of employees, +## they have remained a private company.
They enjoy the fact that they are the family own business, sensitive to the needs of their customers.
## They don’t have to worry about pleasing shareholders.
Rather than paying dividends to share holders, Emma’s Best has a profit-sharing plan that benefits its employees.
(Dividends are a share of a company’s revenues that are paid to its shareholder.)
Bonuses and salary increases keep employees happy and motivated to work hard.
+# As a result, employee turnover is low and the company has been recognized as one of the best companies to work for.
(If employees are happy and motivated, employee turnover is usually low.)
In addition, Emma’s Best supports local charities, especially those that provide healthy food to children from low-income families.
Given its success, the company feels an obligation to contribute to society.
In spite of the fact that other companies are now produce similar products, Emma’s Best remains the market leader.
Their total commitment to quality has made the difference, their are proud of their accomplishments.
L05U01 3-2 Vocabulary (Emotions 2)
+# People are often nervous or apprehensive before performing in front of an audience.
People who are really feel nervous may feel tense which is the opposite of relaxed.
(Sometimes, taking a deep breath can help a nervous person feel more relaxed.)
# (When someone is nervous, their muscles often tense up and their heart rate increases.)
Someone who strongly believes in their ability to do something is often confident.
The best way to build confidence is to practice what you’re going to do until you can do it with ease.
# (The key to building confidence and reducing nervousness is effective and frequent practice.)
(Someone with confidence can perform at a higher level than someone who is nervous.)
To be indifferent means to not care one way or the other about something.
If you are indifferent to a person or project, it means the person or project isn't important to you.
(People who are indifferent may not value anything or anyone but themselves.)
(People who are indifferent are often cold and uncaring about others..)
# To be appreciative is to be thankful or grateful for something.
If someone does something nice for you, you should appreciated.
# (It’s important to show your appreciation for someone’s support or help.)
(If someone does a favor for you, you should show your appreciation by thanking them.)
## To be depressed is the opposite of to be happy.
## When someone ~ is depressed they feel very sad.
# (Depression can be caused by disappointing news or by failing to reach a goal.)
# (When people are depressed, they are usually pessimists about the future.)
## (When you are really sad, you may be depressed.)
Aggressive people often push their own ideas or try to force others to follow them.
Someone who is passive will usually not resist the effort of others.
(An aggressive person pushes or attacks, and a passive person doesn’t resist.)
# (A passive person is often see as weak and easy to control.)
An optimistic person believes in a positive future.
Optimists see the glasses is half full rather than half empty.
The opposite of an optimist is a pessimist.
(A pessimist sees things with a negative light and has little hope for the future.)
+## (Optimists are usually cheerful and looking forward to a bright future.)
+## (Pessimists see a glass as half empty rather than half full.)
Sensitive people are emotional and have strong feelings about things.
It important to be careful when dealing with sensitive people because it’s easy to upset them.
Insensitive people don’t seem to be aware of or care about the feelings of others.
(It’s important to know how to act around extremely sensitive people.)
# (He doesn’t realise when she’s upset because he’s quite insensitive to the feelings of others.)
A mean person does’t treat other people well or with kindness.
+# Mean people often enjoy making suffer for their mistakes.
To be kind is the opposite of to be mean.
(He was really mean to her when he told her how badly she had performed.)
+# (He was really mean to her when she disagreed with him and he told her to shut up.)
+## (To be mean is the opposite of to be kind.)
(Nobody ever asks him for help because he’s mean and selfish.)
Conceited people have a very high opinion about themselves.
They often talk about how great they are and tend to exaggerate their strengths.
## Modest people don’t show off their strength, but are often very good at what they do.
+# (Conceited people often 'exaggerate their abilities and can 'fool people into believing them.)
(Modest people are often overlooked in a job interview because they fail to communicate their strengths.)
L05U01 3-3 Dialogue (Arrange a meeting)
W: Ace Industries, may I help you?
This is Sue Mitchell speaking.
M: Hi, Sue. This is Ben Wang of Job Link.
W: Oh, hi Ben, how are you.
## I’ve been expecting your call.
M: ## I’m sorry to be late.
## I’ve been travelling.
W: It seems like everyone is travelling these days.
M: That’s for sure.
I’m away more than I’m here.
# Any way I’m calling to see if 'we can arrange a meeting.
There are several matters I’d like to discuss with you.
M: Sure, would late this week be possible.
+## (He suggests that they meet later this week.)
W: Let me see.
# According to my schedule I’ll 'have 'some time Thursday afternoon and Friday morning.
M: +## How long do you think will need?
W: +## I think an hour should be enough.
M: +## That should be fine.
Would Thursday at 3:30 work for you?
W: Yes, that’s fine.
W: +# Ok, I’m looking forward to seeing you at 3:30 on Thursday.
M: Right, see you 'then, and thanks.
W: You’re welcome, Ben.
M: Hi, Sue. # I’m sorry, but something urgent has come up. So I’d like to change the time for our meeting on Thursday.
W: ## Oh, I’m sorry to hear that.
What about Friday morning.
M: ## That should work.
W: I’m usually here by 9 o’clock.
## Could you be here by then?
M: Yes, that shouldn’t be a problem.
W: Friday at 9 o’clock.
M: +## Once again, sorry for the last minute change. (He makes an apology.)
L05U01 4-1 Listening ()
## There are many mysteries in nature.
# Mysteries are things we don't understand, such as how the Egyptian pyramids were built.
In fact, we are surrounded by mysterious.
+## What we know about the world, seems like very little.
1) # Scientists tell us that what we see in the universe is only a small part of what is there.
2) +## The rest is invisible, including dark matter and dark energy.
3) ## These two unknowns make up around 95% of the universe.
4) Evidence for their existence comes from their effects on what we can observe, such as their motion and positions of distant galaxies.
Yet, though we are know very little, we are able to build airplanes and communicate with smart phones.
+## In some ways we humans are very smart, or at least we think we are.
+# We still need ~ to face big issues, like climate change(global warming), and 'that is going to be a huge challenge.
+# The challenging for humans will be our ability to adapt to our changing environment.
What about the other forms of life?
How do they adapt?
+# Seasonal variations, for example, can be one of the greatest challenges for animals to overcome.
+# Overcoming such challenges is a 'great achievement, but hardly easy.
+## Some birds migrate thousands of kilometres each year to deal with the seasonal changes.
These migrations are amazing.
+## Birds don't carry maps or compasses, yet they know where to go.
+## They have developed the ability to see the Earth's magnetic field.
This ability is a wonder of nature.
+# It takes advantage of fact that the earth is like a huge bar magnet.
It has a North Pole which is positive and the South Pole which is negative.
Somehow the birds are able to see these magnetic field and the use it to their advantage.
+## And even the way birds fly together is amazing.
Many migrating birds fly in a V formation.
They do these to conserve energy.
+# In a V formation, birds can use the energy of the birds in front of them.
+## This energy comes from the air currents generated by the wings.
+## Conserving energy is necessary for the birds to survive the long journey.
How do the birds know this?
It's truly amazing how the birds know this.
1) Another amazing example of a survival is the salmon.
2) Salmon spend most of their lives in the ocean, which is saltwater.
3) Yet, when it's time to breed, they do so in the freshwater rivers.
4) +## Salmon can adapt their bodies to survive in both saltwater and freshwater.
+# When it’s breeding time, they return to the same river where they were born.(to breed)
It seems as if they have a built-in map that guides them for hundreds of miles. (仿佛像是)
Once they leave the saltwater, they don’t eat.
+## They are determined to finish their journey, despite the many obstacles.
They swim against ~ strange currents, jump over waterfalls and try to escape the claws of hungry bears.
Many die along the way, but enough of them survive to breed and produce their next generation.
Once they have led their eggs they die, having completed their journey.
+## It seems that their purpose in life is just to reproduce.
Migration takes animals to new, more favourable environments when the season’s changed.
Some of these journeys are long and dangerous, along routes with no obvious landmarks.
(A landmark is something easy to see and remember, like a river or bay.)
The longest migration is that of the Arctic tern. (北极燕)
It flies from pole to pole, twice a year.
If a tern achieves its average lifespan ~ of 20 years, the distance it has flown will be equivalent to a journey to the moon and back.
Humans also migrate, but seldom if ever for seasonal variations. (几乎从来不)
+# Unfortunately, human migrations are often due to the human activities.
Since the beginning of 21st century, large scale migrations have becoming a global problem.
Millions of migrants have had to leave their countries and look for new homes.
Many have died along the way, or lived as refugees and camps, until they have admitted into a new country.
So the question remains as to how our globe communities facing these challenges.
L05U01 4-2 Vocabulary ()
To criticize someone means to point out their faults or mistakes.
Some people appreciate constructive criticism, which can help them develop their skills.
## (Some people cannot take any criticism without feeling hurt.)
(Learning how to provide and take constructive criticism is an important skill.)
To praise someone is to let them know that they have done a great job.
+# Some people 'expect to be praised when they have performed well.
## (Knowing when and how to praise someone is an important skill.)
(It’s important not to praise people when they haven’t done a good enough job.)
# To apologize to someone is to admit that you have done something wrong or hurtful.
One way to apologize to someone is to say you're sorry.
+## (One way to apologize is to say you are sorry.)
If your apology isn't excepted means that the person hasn't forgiven you.
## (If you accidentally hurt someone it’s usually a good idea to apologize.)
+## (If someone rejects your apology, it means they haven’t forgiven you.)
+## (To forgive someone is to accept their apology.)
To order people to do something means to use your power or position to get them to do it.
Many people dislike being ordered to do things.
+# In many cases it's better to make a request than order someone to do something.
+# (A boss may order his employees to do something and they will usually agree to it, even if they don’t want to.)
+## (If someone doesn’t follow orders, he or she may be punished.)
+# (A boss may use a request instead of a command as a way to show respect to an employee.)
+# To encourage someone is to support their efforts and 'help to build their confidence.
+## A good teacher encourages students to do their best.
To discourage someone is to take away their confidence.
+# (Some people are discouraged if they don’t receive praise or recognition for their work.)
+## (Many people dislike being ordered to do things.)
# (It’s discouraging to work for someone who never shows appreciation for your hard work.)
## They are many different cycles in nature, such as the cycle of seasons.
A cycle is the series of events that repeat, such as the daily circle of light and dark.
(The time it takes for a cycle to repeat itself is its period )
+# (The number of times a cycle repeats itself within a period of time is its frequency.)
## To evolve means to change or improve over a period of time.
In biology, the theory of evolution says that advance life forms, such as humans have evolved from lower forms of life.
## (Life forms evolve because they have to adapt in order to survive.)
+# (According to science we have all evolved from simple one-celled organisms.)
# A force of attraction brings two objects closer together, such as the force of gravity.
A force of repulsion pushes two objects away from each other, such as the force between two electronics.
+## (Gravity is a force of attraction between two objects with mass.
In human interactions, there are also forces of attraction. Two people may find each other attractive. +## If two people are attracted to each other, they want to be together.)
(1) There are many different kinds of forces.
2) There are forces of attraction, such as the force between positive and negative electric charges.
3) There are also forces of repulsion.
4) For example, two objects with the same electric charge will repel each other.)
(We says that opposites attract. However, in human relationships, though opposites may attract, the relationship may not last long. People who have much in common may not attract each other but may have a longer lasting relationship.) (异性相吸, 反向相吸)
To transform means to change from one form into another.
# A transformation occurs when an object takes on a new appearance or structure.
(Over a period of time, the process of evolution can transform the appearance of a species of life.)
+# (A good leader can transform an unsuccessful company into a successful one by changing how it is organized.)
(In marriage, a wife’s attempt to transform the behavior of her husband is often unsuccessful.)
To inherited something means to get it without having to ask or work for it.
+## A child from a very rich family may inherit a lot of money.
(Eye and hair color are inherited traits.)
(He inherited a large fortune when his parents died, so he doesn’t have to work anymore.)
L05U01 4-3 Dialogue (Office fight)
W: 1) ## Excuse me, do you have a minute?
M: 2) I’m sorry, not right now.
3) I’ll be free about 15 minutes.
4) Could you come back then?
W: # No, I’m 'afraid we have an emergency upstairs.
M: ## Can't you handle it?(...to deal with it)
W: No, I think it would be best if you were there.
M: Ok, I’ll finish this call and be right with you.
M: Ok, what is it?
W: # Kevin and Bod are shouting at each other, and it’s 'upsetting everyone.
M: Oh, not again!
+## (This isn’t the first time they have had problems.)
## Those two have got to grow up. (...to act like adult and not children.)
Who started it?
W: +# I’m not sure, but they were even pushing each other.
M: Ok, this is unacceptable.
+# You run on ahead and warn them that I’m coming.
+## I want them to calm down before I get there.
Can you do that?
W: +## Ok, I’ll do what I can to calm them down.
But you know Kevin, he is such a hard head. (He can’t control his emotions.)
M: Ok, Kevin. I’ve warned you before.
This has got to stop.
K: Yes, I know.
But, Bob doesn’t cooperate.
He is impossible to work with.
+# (Kevin thinks Bob doesn’t cooperate and is difficult to work with.)
M: ## Even so, you can’t go aground pushing people.
## That’s no way to handle things.
+# If you weren't doing such a good job, I'd have to let you go(to fire him) right now.
## Your behaviour just isn’t acceptable.
K: Yes, I understand and I’m sorry.
+## I just 'can’t stand working with him.
# (Kevin thinks Bob doesn’t cooperate and difficult to work with.)
M: I’m not sure what to do.
+## What would you do if you were me?
+## Do you have any suggestions?
K: To be honest, if I were you I wouldn’t have the two of us working at the same office.
+# I know Bob has been with the company longer than I have, but he’s doing a terrible job.
When you are not around, he just bullies people.(acts like bully.)
People are afraid of him.
M: +## Ok, I’ll look into it(get more information) a bit more.
# But, you’ve 'got to 'promise me to keep cool and not let this happen again.
K: +## Ok, I’ll try to handle things differently next time.
// (‘重读) (_轻声) (x ~ x连读) (#跟读) (##听读) (+##复习时跟/听读) (xxx下划线是测试题答案) (加粗是对于我的生词/词组)
L05U02 1-1 Listening (The emotion of love)
1) One of the most important human emotions is love.
2) However, there are many different kinds of love.
3) # Romantic love is certainly one of the most interesting kinds of love.
It can be beautiful, wonderful and heart breaking, sometimes all at the same time.
4) Romantic love can make our lives full of meaningful, but it can also be an escape from loneliness and suffering.
(Besides romantic love, another kind of love is between parents and children.)
+## (Other kinds of love include the love between a parent and child.)
## If romantic love has a purpose, neither psychology nor biology has discovered it.
However, throughout history, philosophers have offered opinions about it.
1) ## The Greek philosopher, Plato, said love makes us complete.
2) He relates a comic story in which humans originally had 4 arms, 4 legs and 2 faces. (叙述)
3) +## Then, when angered the Gods, they were cut in half.
4) # Since then every person has been searching for their soulmate, the other 'half of his or her self.
## Another philosopher believed that love is an illusion. (…it isn’t what it seems to be.)
# In 'his view, people fall in love because they believe the another person can make them happy.
+## But in fact, this is just an illusion designed to make us have children.
+## Once we have children, we are right back to where we were, still searching for happiness.
+## For nature this is a success, because we have children to maintain our species.
But it leaves us still searching for something more.
+# (Some people say love can be a disguise for our sexual desires or a biological trick to make us have children.)
1) # In Buddhism, romantic love is seen as an attempt to satisfy our desires.
2) +# These desires are a 'defect, something we need to overcome.
3) +# The way to free ourselves from suffering is to remove desires.
4) +## Once free of desires we can reach a state of peace and wisdom.
This state of being is called Nirvana.
In one of the China’s greatest classic novels, Dream of Red Camber, love is presented as a state of foolishness.
# A young man falls in love with a beautiful woman who tricks make a fool of him.
This results a conflicting emotions of love and hate, which tear him apart.
## To cure him, a priest gives him a magic mirror.
# The priest tells him to look into the reverse side of the mirror, but never to look in the front side.
+## When the young man looks into the mirror, he doesn’t like what he sees, so he looks into the forbidden side, the front side.
There he sees the lovely image of his love, who invites him into the mirror to be with her.
He does it several times, until he's finally dragged away in chains.
+## (He is dragged away in chains and dies while looking into the mirror.)
## He dies while looking into the mirror.
## (He enters the mirror to be with his love and satisfy his desires.)
+## Perhaps the point of the story is that all such attachments should be avoided.
1) A famous French writer, Simone de Beauvoir has another point of view. (西蒙.波娃)
2) ## For her, love is the desire to intergrade(integrate错词) with another, like in a great friendship. (逐渐合一)
3) However, it is important that lovers not to become too dependent on the other person.
4) Becoming dependent on another person can lead to boredom or power games.
+#Lovers should support each other in discovering themselves and developing their potentials.
+## In this way, romantic love can enrich the world.
## Falling in love can be exciting and frightening.
## Maybe we lose ourselves and maybe we find ourselves.
Will you dare to find out?
L05U02 1-2 Vocabulary (Behaviour)
Forbidden or prohibited, to be against the rules or not allowed.
## Smoking is prohibited on many airplanes.
Athletes are forbidden from taking certain kinds of drugs.
If something is allowed, it isn’t forbidden or prohibited.
## (Access to that part of the factory is prohibited for security reasons.)
# (Some parts of the factory are forbidden to visitors unless they have special permission.)
(Tourists are forbidden from taking pictures inside the museum.)
(Her parents didn’t like him, so she was forbidden to see him ever again.)
+# (They were forbidden from going to that website because of its content.)
+# (Weapons of any kind are prohibited inside the stadium.)
Risky, to be a bit dangerous or unsafe.
A risky investment may not be a good idea for people who worry too much.
If you make a risky investment you may lose a lot of money.
## What level of risk are you willing to take?
## (Meeting someone on the internet can be very risky, so be careful.)
(Starting a new company can be very risky because most new companies fail within 5 years.)
+# (Investing in that company is very risky, )
Ridiculous, to be foolish or not making any sense.
# Their proposal is ridiculous, because it requires too much time and money.
+# Without enough quality practice, it’s ridiculous to expect too much progress.
(He is lazy and the quality of his work is poor, so it’s ridiculous for him to expect a bonus.)
(It’s ridiculous for us to expect great results from such a poorly designed product.)
Innovative, to come up with new ideas and way of doing thing.
Innovative people are usually cleaver and creative.
To innovate, means to come up with a new way of doing something.
Innovative of thinking, can lead to the development of new products and services.
(He isn’t innovative because he resists change and always wants to do things the same way.)
+## (She left the company because she didn’t think it was innovative enough.)
(If they want to be innovative, they should change the way they’ve been doing things.)
+# (Agreeing to her innovative ideas was difficult at first, but it turned out to be the right decision.)
+# (His innovative proposals made several of the engineers very uncomfortable, but they finally agreed.)
Conservative, to be conservative is to avoid taking risks.
+## Conservative investors try to make safe investments.
A conservative investor wants to minimize risks.
## A conservative approach to management may discourage innovation.
(If you don’t want to take a risk, you should take a conservative approach to investing.) (保守的方法)
## (She wants to escape from her parents because they are too conservative.)
+# (Her parents are very conservative, so they don’t approve of her wearing so much makeup.)
To disguise, to change something’s appearance, so that it can’t be recognized.
+# He wasn’t good at disguising himself, so we knew who he was right the way.
## She wore a disguise, so I wasn’t sure who she was.
## (She didn’t want anyone to recognize her, so she wore a disguise.)
+# (She disguised her true intentions so )
(I don’t trust him because he is so good at disguising his real plans.)
(She disguised her true attention, so nobody knew what she was planing to do.)
To clarify, to explain or make something clear.
We weren’t sure what he meant, until he clarified his ideas.
Everyone was confused until she clarified what she meant.
## (We can’t ~ agree to your proposal unless you clarify a few points.)
+## (There are still many details that need to be clarified.)
To confuse, to make things difficult to understand, the opposite of to clarify.
+## Everyone was confused because her presentation was so disorganized.
+## He confuses people because he keeps changing his ideas.
+## The instructions were confusing, so nobody knew what to do.
(A good leader can make decisions even when the situation is confusing.)
# (He was confused about what he was supposed to do, so he didn’t do a very good job.)
## (After that explosion people were confused and unsure about where to go.)
(Her comments during the meeting weren’t very constructive because they were so confusing.)
To ignore, to try not to notice or deal with something, to act as something isn’t there.
We tried to ignore her, but she finally stood up and told everyone to shut up.
## People don’t respect or like her, so they ignore her in the office.
(He is an ignorant old fool, so we should just ignore him.)
(We can no longer ignore the fact that our company needs to be reorganized.)
+## (We can’t ignore the fact that we are losing money.)
(We are ignorant because we are ignoring the facts.)
To confirm, to indicate that something is correct or completed as expected.
# We weren’t sure he was going to accept our offer until he called and confirmed it.
## We can’t start the project without a written confirmation that we agree on the details.
## (Can you confirm that the payment has been received?)
(We can’t afford to make a mistake, so we need to confirm the facts.)
+## (Please confirm or deny that you were at the meeting.)
(He denied that he was at the meeting, but we have confirmed that he was there.)
+# (He denied being there, but we have witnesses who can confirm that he was there.)
+# (We won’t sign the contract until we receive confirmation that they have made the first payment.)
L05U02 1-3 Dialogue (Journal of teenagers)
A: What’s so funny?
What’re you writing about?
B: ## I’m writing about something I saw earlier this morning.
A: Really? Do you keep a journal?
## (He is surprised to hear that his friend is keeping a journal.)
# (This kind of journals is a collection of observations 'rather than personal experiences.)
B: Yes, I do.
+# Every weekend I write about things that happened during the week.
A: How long have you been doing it?
B: ## I’ve been doing it fairly regularly since high school.
A: Are you going to turn it into a book?
B: I don’t know.
Maybe I will someday, but for now, it's just for me.
A: 1) So, what was so interesting about what you saw this morning?
B: 2) I was in the same coffeeshop I usually go to and a group of teenagers came in.
+## (A group of teenagers came into the coffee shop where he was sitting.)
3) I couldn’t help watching them and trying to hear some of their conversation.
A: 4) ## That must have been interesting.
B: Yes, it was.
The more I watched them, the more I realised how glad I’m that I don’t have to go through that stage of life again.
A: So it brought back some memories, didn't it?
B: Yes it did.
It was so clear how uncomfortable some of them were, yet they were pretending to have a good time.
At least, that’s how it seem to me.
# (It seemed to him that some of them weren’t having a good time.)
A: +## Why do you think they were pretending?
B: It was just the way they smiled and laugh.
+## It seemed unnatural and overdone, as if they were bad actors.
+# (In his opinion, the way they interacted with each other was a bit unnatural and exaggerated.)
B: 1) A couple of the boys were really awkward around the girls, and two of the girls were wearing too much makeup.
I had to stop myself and laughing.
A: 2) Yes, I can imagine it.
## I can remember wanting to be popular when I was in high school.
3) +# Now that you mention it, it wasn’t a great time, thought I 'had some 'fun 'too.
B: 4) +# I 'guess it wasn’t so bad at the time, except when I was preparing for my university entrance examinations.
A: Yes, that was awful.
# My parents put 'tons of pressure on me, so I thought I was going to go ‘crazy.
A: What about girls?
Did you have any girlfriends?
B: +# There 'was one girl I had a crush on, but I thought she was interested in somebody else.
+## I didn’t find it out until much later that she was 'interested in me too.
## It was a lost opportunity, one of many.
(He didn’t realise that the girl he had a crush on was interested in him.)
A: +## Really? You should become a writer or make a movie.
You have a great imagination.
B: # To be honest, it’s much easier to imagine things than actually do things.
A: You can say that again. (I agree with you)
L05U02 2-1 Listening (Light and color)
1) People have wondered about the nature of light and color since ancient times.
2) Some people thought that light came from the eye rather than coming into the eye.
3) +## To see, light was projected from our eyes to illuminate things as we look at them. (to make it visible)
4) Now we know that what we see is mostly reflected light, like the light from the moon which is reflected sunlight.
Light comes from the light source, such as the sun, and either enter our eyes directly, or after it’s reflected of something.
In 1666, Sir Isaac Newton showed that when light passes through a prism, it separates into all the other colours.
## (A prism separates light into its component colors.)
+## This clearly demonstrated that light is composed ~ to many different colors.
## The difference between colors is due to their wavelength.
+## (Each color is a single wavelength of light.)
+# A prism separates light into different colors because each color has a different wavelength.
+## The angle at which a color bends in the prism depends on its wavelength.
+# (Besides the sun, any object that produces its own light is a direct light source.)
(Light enters our eyes directly or after it has reflected off something like a tree or flower.)
1) # Colors with shorter wavelengths 'bend more than colors with longer wavelengths.
2) ## This explains why red light bends less than yellow light.
3) The reason is because its wavelength is longer.
4) # Of the visible colors, violet light has the shortest wavelength, so it bends the most.
# If you have ever 'painted, you know that different colors can be 'combined to create new colors.
+## (Different colors can be combined to form other colors.)
For example, ## if you add 'white to a color, you lighten it.
# However, _that three primary colors, red, blue and yellow, cannot be made by mixing other colors.
## (The primary colors cannot be created by mixing other colors.)
It isn’t possible to mix any combination of colors to create red, blue or yellow.
# Mixing two primary colors creates a secondary color, such as purple, which is made by mixing blue and red.
+## Mixing three primary colors creates a tertiary color, such as brown or grey. (第三的)
Colors are wonderful to look at, but they also affect people in ways besides sight.
## They have a powerful effect on how people feel and behave.
Artists notice and so do 'business people who 'want to influence how people feel about their products and advertisements.
+# For example, research shown that people can be more productive if they are working in a blue room.
The color purple is often linked to wealth and loyalty, and it seems as a mysteries, spiritual color.
+## (Purple ~ is make by mixing blue and red.)
+## Some colors have even been associated with challenges in blood pressure. (are connected in some way)
+## Though color can influence how we 'feel and 'act, 'these effects may depend on personal and culture factors.
Therefor, it’s important not to believe everything you hear about the effects of color.
1) +# Though there are 'differences between 'cultures, there is a general agreement about some colors.
2) +# The color 'red, for example, is a warm color associated with energy and excitement in many cultures.
3) ## In china red is associated with fire, energy and good fortune.
4) On the other hand, one experiment showed that exposing students to red before taking a test can have a negative effect.
In fact, of all the colors, research shows that red has the most powerful effect on human behavior.
Certainly, it’s interesting and important to better understand the psychological effects of light and color.
## To gain a better understanding of these effects, more researches is needed.
L05U02 2-2 Vocabulary (Actions related with job)
To promote, to move someone up in an organisation, usually because she has done a good job.
## We’re going to promote her to manager.
## If we don’t promote him, he’ll probably be upset.
The opposite of promote is demote.
(It looks like we promoted him too soon, because he can’t do the job.)
(We shouldn’t promote anyone unless they really deserve it, which means they have to prove themselves.)
(I don’t think she deserves a promotion yet, but her boss is insisting that we give it to her.)
(to give them a higher level job)
To transfer, to move someone or something from one place to another.
## The company is going to 'transfer him to Shanghai next month.
She doesn’t want to be transferred, because her husband is against moving to another city.
(He wants to be transferred back to engineering because he hates paperwork.)
(He likes working with us, but he wants to be transferred to a different place within the company.)
(She won’t agree to be transferred unless we give her a promotion and a salary increase.)
To motivate, to get someone interested or excited about doing something.
+## She is really good at motivating her employees.
+# One way to motivate someone is to encourage them by giving constructive feedback.
+# (We need to motivate our people more and not demotivate them by reducing benefits.)
+# (He’s no fool, so giving him an award without an increase in salary won’t motivate him.)
(When he didn’t get his bonus he was really demotivated, so the quality of his work went down.)
(They aren’t working hard enough because they aren’t being motivated.)
To postpone, to delay or put off something until a later date.
+# We had to postpone the presentation because she wasn’t ready to give it.
+## We can’t continue to postpone the meeting or they will cancel it completely.
(We have no choice but to postpone the test, because the weather conditions aren’t right.)
(We can’t postpone lunching)
(They are asking to postpone making their first payment, so we may decide to cancel the contract.)
To evade, to escape or avoid something.
+## They are trying to evade taking responsibility for their failure.
He was rested for tax evasion.
# (The hackers broke into the computer and evaded until it was 'too late to catch them.)
# (They can’t evade paying the import tax or they will lose their license to do business in that country.)
+## (They designed the airplane to evade detection by radar.)
To assign, to give someone a task to do.
## His boss assigned him to increase sales by 50%.
## Her company assigned her to find out more about the competition.
(His department was the one which was assigned to complete the project, so our department wasn’t involved.)
(Her boss assigns her to do too much , frustrated.)
(It’s very dangerous, so I won’t assign this project to you unless you are willing to take a risk.)
To penalize, to fine or punish someone for doing something wrong.
## They were penalized for breaking the rules.
+## You will be penalized if you are late.
(They were all penalized, so they had to work even harder to complete the project on time.)
(We know we would be penalized, but the penalty fair….)
(She was penalized for not submitting her application on time, so she had to pay an extra fee.)
To lay off, to fire or suck a worker because business is bad.
## The company was failing, so he was laid off.
+## Our company had to laid off 50% of our employees.
+## A company may have to lay off workers when business is bad.
+# (He was doing a good job, but the company had to lay him off because they were losing money.)
(He lost his job because his company had to lay off most of its employees.)
(She was laid off, not fired, so it should be easier for her to find a new job.)
To recruit, to look for new employees to hire.
## Their are expanding their business and recruiting new employees.
+## She joined the company after she was recruited at a job fair.
+# (He left his job because he was recruited by another company and offered a much higher salary.)
+## (It isn’t easy for a small company to recruit experienced managers.)
+# (She was recruited to work for a recruiting company, but now she’s being laid off.)
To resign, to voluntarily quit one’s job.
## His boss didn’t like him, so he was asked to resign.
## She resigned from her job because of health reasons.
# (He wanted to resign, but he needed to stay on for another year to complete the project.)
# (He didn’t want to be transferred, so he decided to resign and work for a competitor.)
(She has decided to resign because she wants to spend more time with her family.)
L05U02 2-3 Dialogue (Make-up)
M: Wow! You look different today.
W: You mean more beautiful.
M: What’s with all the makeup?
W: ## I feel like dressing up today.
Don’t you like it?
# (She felt like dressing up today, so she put on more makeup than usually wears.)
## (She’s wearing more makeup than usual, especially with the bright red lipstick.)
M: ## Do you want me to be honest?
W: Of course, but I know you.
You are so old-fashioned.
M: # I just think you don’t 'need so much makeup to look beautiful.
+# (He thinks she doesn’t need so much makeup to look beautiful and attractive.)
+## That lipstick is like a fire engine.
W: +## Well not everyone agrees with you.
+## And I like looking different once in a while.
M: I’m glad I’m not a woman.
## There are too many things to deal with.
W: Yes, you wouldn’t be good at it.
+# You always wear the same old clothes, it’s boring. (always dresses as the same way)
+# (He always dresses the same way, and doesn’t seem to care about the fashion.)
M: ## Maybe it’s boring, but it’s comfortable.
W: # You’re 'never going to find a new girlfriend if you don’t change.
M: # I’m not interested in women anymore, you know that, they are nothing but trouble.
W: Am I trouble?
M: You and I are just opposites.
You are alway doing something new, and I would rather just relax.
(Their personalities are quite different, almost complete opposites.)
W: You sound like an old man.
## You need to act younger.
## You need to be more exciting.
M: And then what? Find my soulmate?
W: ## Really, you sound so cynical! (adj. 愤世嫉俗的；冷嘲的)
# (A cynical person is someone who doesn’t care much about anything.)
+## Don’t you believe in love?
M: Sure, in the movies maybe.
M: Love is an illusion.
It never last, once it starts just difficult to break up.
W: ## Your problem is that you expect too much from love.
M: I thought you are the romantic one.
You are too romantic.
You need to more practical.
M: # I thought you were the romantic one.
W: +## I have a romantic side, yes, but I’m practical.
+## (She has a romantic side, but she is also practical.)
+# 'My man has got to be 'good looking, 'well-dressed and hopefully rich.
M: Ha hah! Then that lets me out.
W: Yes, you’ve got a lot to learn.
W: Now, where are we going for dinner.
M: +# Ok, you've convinced me that your makeup isn’t so bad.
But I think it’s your turn to pay.
W: That’s what you think.
## (They’ll split the bill.)
## (He cares a lot about fashion.)
//Speaking——20171020, 4 stars, 94’, +70, +114, +30
//Grammer——20171020, 4 stars, 100’, +66, +117, +66
//Matching——20171020, 4 stars, 100’, +80, +207, +80
L05U02 3-1 Listening (Iceman)
One of the most interesting people in history is probably someone you have never heard of.
We’ll called him Iceman because his body was frozen in ice for several thousand years.
His body was discovered in 1991 by two hikers in the mountains near the border of Austria, in Italy.
# The lower part of his body was still frozen in ice, but the upper part was uncovered and visible.
1) ## Once the body was extracted from the ice, it was taken ~ in for examination.
2) Upon the examination, scientists determined that the Iceman lived around 5,300(53 hundred) years ago.
3) This was at the end of the Stone Age, nearly 1000 years before the great pyramids were built.
4) This made him the oldest mummy ever found.
1) ## Iceman’s body was in good condition when ~ it was found.
# People believed that the body was one of the many hikers who had been lost in recent years.
2) +## Nobody suspected that the body was as old as it was.
3) It had been preserved by the ice for thousands of years.
## (It was in good condition because it had been preserved by the ice.)
4) +## Given its good condition, studying in it was like opening a window in time.
+## Scientists _could learn a lot about how people lived 5000 years ago.
1) +# The Iceman lived ~ at the end of the Stone Age, a time of great change in human history.
# (The Iceman lived at a time of great change, at the end of the Stone Age.)
+# Hunting was ~ still a major source of food, but people were beginning to farm.
## People were settling down and forming communities.
2) # (People were beginning to farm and form permanent communities.)
+## (People were beginning to farm, so they needed to settle in one place.)
3) These communities were claiming territory and setting up boundaries.
(Communities were claiming territory and fighting to defend it from outsiders.)
4) As a result, sometimes they had to fight to defend their territory from outsiders.
The village where the iceman lived was probably not far from where he died.
## Perhaps, he was killed in a battle with outsiders.
Iceman was about 45 years old when he died.
He was 1.6 meters tall, and weight about 50 kilo-grand when he was alive.
Along with the body were some other objects.
These included some weapons, including a bow arrow, a knife and an ~ ax.
He was still wearing one ~ of his shores, and he had a backpack with a wooden frame.
He also had some plants that may have been used for medical purposes.
Further examination of the body showed that he was well fit with a diet of meat, bread and fruit.
In fact, +## he ate several meals within a few hours of his death.
## From all the evidence, he probably had a good life.
+## Perhaps he was hunting for food when he was caught in a sudden storm.
1) For several years after the discovery of the body, scientists believed that he died form the cold.
2) Weather is unpredictable in the area where he was found, so perhaps he was caught in an unexpected storm.
3) However, ten years after his body was found, new evidence pointed to a 'new cause of death.
4)1) In 2001, examiners x-rayed the body and found an arrowhead deep in the Icemen’s chest.
+# In 2001, examiners x-rayed the Iceman’s body and found an arrowhead deep in his chest.
2) # Further analysis revealed that the iceman had been shorted from behind.
3) The arrow had cut through the artery and had caused sever bleeding.
4) # Clearly, it was a case of murder, the oldest case of murder ever discovered.
L05U02 3-2 Vocabulary (Actions)
To sue, to take someone to course in a legal disagreement.
## The broke a contract and didn’t pay, so we sued them and won.
# She sued her employer for firing her, but she lost because they had the right to fire her.
(When she left her job she sued her employer for not keeping its promise to pay her a bonus.)
# (When she asked for an extra payment, we refused because it was illegal and she could have sued us.)
(If something is confidential, you should restrict access to it.)
(We couldn’t agree to her plan to avoid paying taxes, which was illegal, so she threatened to sue us.)
+## (We had to be very careful when we talked to her because we didn’t want to be sued.)
To restrict, to put limits on something.
## This is a restricted area, so stay away.
## We need to restrict them from talking to anyone about our project.
(We have unlimited access to their research and there are no restrictions on how we use the information.)
+# (We can’t trust him, so we will have to restrict his activities until we know him better.)
+# (The government tried to restrict people from going there because it was too dangerous, but some people insisted on going.)
+# (If something is confidential, you should restrict access to it.)
To negotiate, to deal with or bargain with others to reach an agreement.
Instead of starting a war, we should negotiate and find a way to compromise.
+## We are trying to negotiate a better deal, but it isn’t easy.
(The price is too high, but if we negotiate we may be able to get a discount.)
(If we agree to buy more, then we can negotiate for a volume discount.)
+# (He never wants to negotiate, so he has lost several important customers.)
Responsible for or responsible to, to be responsible for something means to have the job of getting it done or taking care of.
If you are responsible to someone, it means that you are working under their control.
(She is the person responsible for improving sales last year, so we should give her a promotion.)
+# (We need to report this to our boss because we are responsible to her and because she will judge our performance.)
+## (We have many responsibilities, but she is the one responsible for product development.)
(He is responsible to the CEO, so he can’t sign the contract without her final approval.)
Oversee or supervise, to control or direct a process or project.
One of his responsibilities was to supervise the rescue operations and keep things under control.
+## As product manager, she oversees the work of several department.
(When we got to the accident, everyone was confused because there was nobody there to supervise.)
(It’s my responsibility to oversee how things are being done and then make recommendations to the CEO.)
(Their new project is behind schedule because nobody oversees how the departments work together.)
To merge, to combine or come together.
Those two companies used to be competitors, but now they have merged into one company.
## When the two companies merged, many people were laid out.
(When two companies merge, there are often many problems, including layoffs.)
(When the two companies merged, some of their best people left and started another company.)
+## (When two companies combine into one, it’s called a merger.)
(They plan to merge with a much larger company, so they will lose their identity.)
To acquire, to buy or take position.
## Some big companies grow by acquiring other companies.
One way to protect your business is to acquire your competitors.
(We need to acquire new technology as soon as possible because we are out-of-date.)
(The best way to acquire a new skill is to find a great teacher or program and practice every day.)
(One way to acquire new technology is to hire innovative people from other companies.)
An agenda, a plan or list of items to be discussed at a meeting.
+## The agenda for the meeting is still unclear.
## What are ~ the main points on the agenda for the meeting?
(There are too many items on the agenda, so we need to cut it down and focus on fewer things.)
(He may have a hidden agenda that hides his real plans, so let’s be careful what we say at the meeting.)
+## (We don’t know what’s on his agenda, so we need to be careful what we say.)
A contract, a written document that defines the rules in a relationship.
A contract isn’t usually useful until things begin to go badly in a relationship.
+## According to our contract, their first payment is due to next week.
+# (It took a long time to agree on a contract because their lawyers kept finding issues that kept us apart.)
(The contract was too much in their favor, so we didn’t sign it.)
(Even a good contract won’t help if a business relationship isn’t build on trust.)
Assets and liabilities, assets are what you own and liabilities are what you owe.
Knowing the assets and liabilities of a company helps determining a company’s value.
# The company had more liabilities than assets, so we decided not to invest.
(Their assets were rapidly increasing in value each year, so we decided to invest.)
# (They have to pay a huge tax penalty, so they have lost value due to the increase in their liabilities.)
+## (If a company borrows a lot of money, it’s increasing its liabilities.)
+# (Our assets include some great technology, so we need to keep investing in research.)
L05U02 3-3 Dialogue (Quit a job)
B: Good morning Lisa.
## What was it you wanted to see me about?
L: Ah, good morning
Thanks for seeing me on such sort notice, +## I know It’s a busy time for you.
B: That’s ok, Lisa.
+## I can see that you’re upset about something.
Is something wrong?
L: Yes, actually there is, and I’ve been thinking about it a lot.
## (She has been thinking about it a lot.)
## To make it short, I’ve decided to leave the company.
B: You’re going to leave?
L: Yes I think it’s the best, I'm really not happy working here anymore.
## (She has decided to quit because she’s not happy working there.)
B: ## Oh, I’m sorry to hear that. Have you found another job?
L: No, it isn’t that.
## My husband and I have just decided that ~ I really don’t need to work.
B: 1) ## Well, I’m sorry to hear that you want to leave.
2) But I really want you to reconsider.
3) ## You have only been here for a year.
+## (She’s been working there for about a year.)
4) # That isn’t very 'long, and it won’t help your resume if you decide to look for a job in the future.
L: # Yes, that may be true, but staying here is really stressful.
## You mean not be aware of it, but I have real problems with my supervisor, Bill.
## (She has some serious problems working with her supervisor.)
+## (Bill is her supervisor, so he supervises her work.)
B: Oh, what kind of problems?
L: +# He takes on projects and assigns them to me with no regard for my other responsibilities.
It’s just too much.
Then he takes all the credit from my work. (to claim responsibility for the result.)
Maybe I’m just too sensitive.
B: Yes, I know he can act that way, and I have told him it’s an area he needs to improve.
Anyway there are all people like that in every organization.
But, you know how to deal with people like him.
B: # I know it’s difficult, but you need to learn how to deal with people like him.
L: Well, I don’t know.
It’s really stressful.
And it isn’t easy for me to talk to him.
B: Listen Lisa.
+## You have great potential and I don’t want to lose you.
1) If you already had a job offer, I wouldn’t stand in your way.
2) But since you don’t, I really want you to stay.
L: 3) I appreciate you saying that.
4) It means a lot.
B: ## So, will you please reconsider your decision?
L: Yes, I’ll talk to my husband.
(She has convinced her of the importance of staying instead of quitting.)
B: # As for Bill, 'please try to work with him for a bit longer.
+## This is part of your learning experience.
L: ## Thanks, I really appreciate your advice.
You are great sales person.
I’m feeling better already.
B: You are welcome, Lisa.
I need you to stay.
## Please give it at least another year.
+# (She has sold Lisa on the idea of staying for another year.)
L05U02 4-1 Listening (Iceman’s death)
1) +# When the body of the Iceman was discovered, nobody realized that he had been murdered.
2) It was the first believed that he got lost in a storm and he had died in the cold weather.
3) 1) However, with the discovery of an arrowhead in his body, it was clearly that the Iceman was murdered.
4) 2) Analysis showed that the arrow had entered his body and cut through an artery in his chest.
3) This would have caused severe bleeding and weakened him.
4) +# With the loss of blood, he couldn’t have survived for very long after being shot.
1) Further examinations revealed something more about how he may have died.
2) Using a CT scan, scientists found blood in his brain.
3) This indicated that he was struck on the head before he died.
# (Blood in the brain indicates that he was hit on the head while still alive.)
4) ## Either he was hit on the head or he fell and struck his head on a rock.
This probably happened when he was in a weaken condition after being shot by the arrrow.
1) Additional evidence showed that the arrow itself had been pulled out of the body.
2) It had been pulled out with force, leaving just the arrowhead inside.
3) Even more interesting was what was left behind, the copper ax.
# (The copper ax, a symbol of power and wealth, was left near the body.)
4) ## The technology needed to make such a weapon was new at the time.
As a result, scientists believe it was a sign of great wealth and position.
+## This suggests that the Iceman may have been an important leader.
+## It also raises the question of why the killer didn’t take it with him.
# (The killer left the copper ax behind, even though it was valuable.)
+## If the Iceman was important, he may have been the leader of his community.
+## One leading theory about his death is that he was assassinated.
+## In ancient times, to take power, you often had to kill the header.
+## (One way to gain power was to kill the leader.)
Perhaps the Iceman was the target of an assassination.
+## There murderer may have followed the Iceman and killed him from behind.
Then, to protect his identity, he pulled out the arrow and covered the body.
+## He left the copper ax behind so that he couldn't be identified.
## (The copper ax, a symbol of power and wealth, was left near the body.)
# (The killer left the copper ax behind, even though it was valuable.)
According to this theory, the Iceman was killed by the member of his own community.
Therefore, the murderer was probably someone he knew.
Another theory is that the Iceman was killed after the battle with outsiders.
+# Since his community was located along an important trade route it may have been attacked.
## The Iceman may have been ~ a military leader fighting to defend his village.
+## Perhaps he was in a battle with the attackers on the day that he died.
According to this theory, he was fleeing from the battle and was caught from behind in an isolated area.
(To flee from something means to run away from it.)
However, from the analysis of his stomach, it is unlike he was running from anyone.
## There was a half-pound of food in his stomach when he died.
# Since food only remains in the stomach for about an hour, he must have eaten a large meal shortly before his death.
# Someone who is in a hurry would never take the time to stop and eat a such large meal.
And if he was killed by outsiders, why didn’t them take the copper ax.
So the question remains about what happened on the final day of his life.
The truth is that nobody will ever know what really happened.
## The Iceman’s murder will remain ~ a mystery forever.
L05U02 4-2 Vocabulary
To interfere, to slow something down or make worse by getting in the way. (阻碍)
## Having too many meetings is interfering with our work.
I told her to leave us alone and not to interfere our problems.
(She told me not to interfere, so I left the room and left them deal with the problem.)
## (All that noise is interfering my ability to think.)
(We can’t finish the project on time if she continues to interfere by asking too many questions.)
To reflect, to think about or consider something, or to through back a image as from a mirror.
## Before I make a decision, I’d like some time to reflect.
# When you look into a mirror, your image is reflected 'back to you.
+## (Upon further reflection, I’ve decided to postpone the project.)
# (After finishing the project, he looked back and reflected on what might have been done to make it better.)
+# (When I reflect on something, I look at it again and again in my mind and try to see all sides of it.)
To influence, to have an effect on something.
I think she can help us influence the others.
+## I don’t we can influence the final result.
+# They don’t care what we think so it will be difficult to influence their decision.
+## (We can’t influence the result, so we don’t need to worry about it.)
(There’s nothing we can do to influence the result because they don’t care about anything except money.)
(With his powerful support, maybe we can influence their decision to postpone the project.)
To focus, to bring attention to something and make it clear.
We we don’t focus on something we won’t get anything done.
We aren’t sure what to focus on, so everyone was confused.
(The problem with that company is that they don’t focus enough on improving quality.)
(It’s important to focus, but you have to be careful not to get lost in details.)
(He focused on too many details and didn’t see the overall shape, so the product was a failure.)
To exaggerate, to describe something as larger or more important than ~ it really is.
It’s difficult to believe what he says, because he always exaggerates.
She says she could sell anything, but of cause that was an exaggeration.
(In my opinion, it’s better to exaggerate your skill a bit in an interview rather than be too modest.)
(She said she was fluent in English, but she was exaggerating, so it’s no surprise that she makes so many mistakes.)
(They exaggerate the benefits of their product and ignore the problems in quality, so I don’t trust them.)
# (He exaggerated the facts, so his presentation was misleading and ineffective.)
To be persuasive, able to cause people to do something by asking or giving reasons.
She’s good at selling things because she is very persuasive.
You can be more persuasive, if you have facts to support you.
+## (He isn’t very persuasive because people don’t trust him.)
# (Their demonstration was boring and disorganized, so it failed to persuade anyone.)
(They can’t be persuaded to change their minds, so let’s not waste time with them.)
(Sometimes it takes a long time to persuade people, so don’t be impatient.)
To be convincing, to provide powerful support for a believe and to overcome doubts.
+## The evidence that he was murdered was convincing.
I couldn’t convince them that I was telling the truth, so they arrested me.
(They weren’t convinced that the date was useful, because it was too dis
(She was convicted that we have the best product, but she couldn’t be persuaded to buy.)
(They tried to convince me that he was a liar, but I didn’t believe them because they had no evidence.)
To be misleading, to lead away from the truth, to give a false idea.
+## Their advertisements are misleading, so be careful not to be fooled.
He tried to mislead me into buying it by exaggerating the benefits.
(The claims made by that company misled me into buying something that didn’t work.)
(I was really disappointed when the product arrived, because the advertisement was misleading.)
(I won’t vote for him because what he says is misleading and too good to be true.)
To be unique, to be highly unusual or different from others.
## I like that design, because it’s unique and attractive.
+## She has a unique personality that some people don’t like.
+# (They try too hard to be unique, but they should focus more on quality and better service.)
(I love to listen to him sing because he has a very unique voice.)
(Everything about her is unique, so people are curious to know more about her.)
To be ordinary, to be just like others not different from any other.
+# Their products are ordinary, with nothing except a low price to recommend them.
## The food at that restaurant was expensive, but the taste was ordinary.
## (There is nothing ordinary about her, so we should give her a promotion.)
+## (They said they were special, but their designs were ordinary and boring.)
+# (They are looking for engineers who are creative and can go beyond the ordinary.)
L05U02 4-3 Dialogue (Improving image)
M: Did you see the beautiful sunset tonight?
It was guogious.
W: No, I didn’t, But I’m surprised you even notice such things.
## (She was surprised that he noticed the beautiful sunset.)
M: Really? Why are you surprised?
W: ## You’re so focused ~ on your work.
I didn’t image you have room in your mind for nature.
M: Really? Well, I just don’t show it.
I make a point of it to notice such things as often as I can.
W: You know I think you should try to show that side of yourself more often.
+# (He should try to show that side of himself that notices the beauty of nature.)
It will improve your image.
M: ## So you think my image needs improving?
W: Well, it wouldn't hurt to be little less formal and to smile once in a while.
# (It wound’t hurt him to be a bit less formal and to smile more often.)
+## (He should show his more sensitive side and be less formal.)
+# You might also improve the way you dress, maybe with a few more warm colors?
M: # I’m afraid I don’t know much about fashion design and warm colors.
# Do you really think the way we dress influences people?
W: You’ve must be kidding.
The first impression you give is based on your appearance and clothes.
Don’t you ever notice the kind of shores someone is wearing.
M: No, I hardly notice.
+## (He hardly notices things such as shoes or clothing styles.)
W: Well then, that explains why your shores are always the same.
How old are the shores you’re wearing now?
M: These? I don’t know, probably a year or so.
W: And I bet you’ve being wear them almost everyday.
They look like it.
M: That right.
1) These shoes are comfortable and they weren’t expensive.
2) I'll bet yours were expensive.
W: 3) Well, they weren’t cheap.
4) # I think it’s important to dress right, to dress for the occasion and make a good 'impression.
M: Ok, why don’t we go shopping together this weekend?
## (He suggests that they go shopping together.)
You can be my fashion adviser.
W: What’s that for me?
M: ## If you like your advice, I’ll buy you another pair of shores.
How is that?
W: Ok, but, they won’t be cheap.
You understand that, right?
M: Of course, but it’ll be worth it, if you think my new look will improve my image.
W: I guarantee it.
+## (She guarantees that his new look will improve his image.)
## With me as an adviser you can't go wrong.
// (‘重读) (_轻声) (x ~ x连读) (#跟读) (##听读) (+##复习时跟/听读) (xxx下划线是测试题答案) (加粗是对于我的生词/词组)
L05U03 1-1 Listening (New job interview)
## Sam Malone has been working at Ace Express for the past 6 years.
## Ace is a shipping company based in Hong Kong.
## It ships dangerous chemicals to all parts of the world.
+## Last year Sam was promoted to Vice President(VP).
Along with the promotion, he was given a beautiful office.
He was also given a 20% raise in salary.
1) Sam is well respected within the company, and he likes his co-workers.
2) However, # he wants to take a new challenges and is looking for a change.
3) # If he stays at Ace, he doesn’t see any chance of another promotion.
4) He is also beginning to worry about the company’s future.
+# He thinks there is a high probability that the company will be acquired.
If that happens, he may lose his job.
1) Last month he started looking for a new job.
2) # According to his research, about 40% of jobs are foundthrough acquaintances.(through friends and acquaintances)
3) So the first thing he did was to contact with his closest friends.
4) He let them know that he was looking for something new.
+# Many of his friends and ~ acquaintances are in the shipping business, but some have moved in other industries.
He also checked out several companies on the internet and updated his resume.
## This morning Sam got a message from a company based in Japan.
+## It’s a medical supply companythat wants to expand its business in China.
They have a small office in Hong Kong and will be conducting interviews next week.
+# Sam is interested in learning more about the company, so he replied to their message and set up an interview.
Even it doesn’t work out, it will be a learning experience for him.
1) +# In planning for the interview, Sam has made some notes about what to do at an interview.
2) First, he needs to be well prepared.
3) ## He needs to know as much as he can about the company, including its history.
4) # He also needs to know how to present himself, including his appearance and body language.
## (It’s important that he wear the appropriate clothes to the interview.)
# It has been years since he was last interviewed, so he needs to be prepared to ~ answer some questions about himself.
For example, he needs to be able to explain what's on his resume, including his strengths and skills.
In any interview situation, it’s important to look right and behaviour appropriately.
## He doesn’t want to give a bad first impression.
# (To give a good impression means to get them to feel like he is someone they can work with.)
## For example, he should be careful not to talk too much.
That means he should stay focused and keep his commons short.
Throughout the interview, he should observe their facial expressions and make eye contact.
# (Throughout the interview he should observe their expressions to see how they are responding.)
It’s going to be important to listen carefully to what they say, and keep things as relaxed as possible.
## He needs to remind himself that he is also interviewing them.
+## He may find that their company isn’t right for him.
+## (Even if they want to hire him, the job may not 'be what he is looking for.)
Therefor, he should be ready to ask them questions, especially about their expectations.
+## In an interview like this, both sides have the same concern.(making the right choice)
They don’t want to make the wrong choice.
L05U03 1-2 Vocabulary (Attitude)
Relaxed, to be calm or at peace, not anxious and tense.
She was trying to relax, but then she got a call from her boss.
He hasn’t relaxed for a long time, so he’s exhausted and difficult to be around.
+## (If she doesn’t find time to relax she’s going to damage her health.)
# (They tried to relax on their vacation, but they were both busy on their cell phones most of the time.)
# (It used to be that people could relax at home, but now they are still working, even in bed.)
Arrogant, to have an exaggerate sense of one’s important or abilities, the opposite of modest.
I wasn’t impressed by her arrogant attitude.
Sometimes the rich and powerful can be very arrogant and greedy.
(Everyone was happy to see him make a fool of himself because he’s usually so arrogant.)
(I think her arrogance is just an act to hide her lack of confidence.)
(People are worried because her arrogance is leading her to take too many risks.)
Prejudiced, to have a negative reasons toward something without a good reason and experience.
She has a prejudice against people who come from countryside.
As a company, we don’t allowprejudice of any kind, including race or religious differences.
(I think he has a prejudice against strong women, so he refuses to work for a woman manager.)
(He dislikes her, so his opinions about the quality of her work are prejudiced against her.)
+## (One of the prejudices he overcame was the prejudice against unattractive people.)
+# (He faced all kinds of prejudice, but he overcame it.)
(We can’t trust their research because their data is obviously prejudiced in their favor.)
Neutral, to be without prejudice and not take sides.
We expected the judge of the trail to be neutral and allow both sides to present their evidence to the jury.
## The referees in a match need to be neutral so that the game is fair.
(It isn’t easy to stay neutral because my boss wants me to reject the new policy.)
(I don’t want to get involved in the argument and would prefer to remain neutral.)
(The talks between the two countries are being held in a neutral location.)
Proper or appropriate, the way it is supposed to be.
## That kind of language isn’t appropriate in ~ this situation because it doesn’t showrespect.
When he came to the interview he wasn’t dressedproperly, so he made a bad impression.
(He didn’t realize that that kind of language wasn’t appropriate and made him look foolish.)
## (I expect you to act appropriately and whatever you do, don’t drink too much!)
(He tried to act cool, but his behavior was inappropriatein that culture and with those people.)
Acquaintance, somebody known or met before.
I’m contacting several of my acquaintances to see if they know of any job opportunities.
I don’t know him well, but he is an acquaintance of mine from a long time ago.
(He says he is an acquaintance of yours, so I’d like you to tell me if you know him.)
## (He says he is an acquaintance of mine, but I don’t remember him.)
Appearance, how something looks, what something looks like.
## He could improve his appearance by buying some new clothes.
## He doesn’t care about his appearance, so he doesn’t make a good impression.
+# (Their manager thinks appearance is important so he wants everyone to dress appropriately.)
+## (We could tell from his appearance that he wasn’t feeling well.)
(Customers really care about the appearance of the products that they buy.)
Consequence, an outcome or result.
Many forms of life willbecomeextinct as a consequence of global warming.
One consequence of his drinking has been the poorquality of his work.
+## (He will have to deal with the consequences of his rude behavior.)
+## (We are all suffering from the consequences of his reckless investments.) (鲁莽的)
(I’m not sure he understands the consequences of his arrogant attitude.)
Factor, something that effects or influences the end result.
One factor that needs to be considered is his arrogant personality.
Her health is one factor that we can’t avoid to ignore.
(Her beauty wasn’t a factor in his decision to hire her, or was it?)
# (Their poor management team was one factor that led to the company’s failure.)
+# (An important factor in their decision not to invest was the lack of good leadership.)
Exception, to be unique or treated differently.
Everyone has to be the office before 9:00, with the exception of sales department.
# I’m sorry, but I can’t make an exception and allow you bring your dog to the office.
# (There will be no exceptions to the rule that all employees must treat each other with respect.)
(Without exception, I expect everyone to work through the weekend.)
(Without exception, I’d like to congratulate everyone for their outstanding work!)
L05U03 1-3 Dialogue (Choosing school)
W: ## Guess what, I’ve got some news!
M: Oh, you mean about Jack?
W: Yes, have you heard?
M: # Yes, Eliza messaged me a few minutes ago.
# (He just got a message about Jack from Eliza.)
W: ## Isn’t it wonderful? (She is excited.) He’s been accepted to Stanford!
## (The message was about Jack getting in to Stanford.)
+## (She was exited when she got the news.)
M: ## Really? That’s not what I heard.
W: So, what have you heard?
M: ## I heard he didn’t get in.
W: So, it was just a rumour.
## (It was just a rumour that he was accepted.)
## (He thought it was just a rumour.)
M: +## If that's what you heard, it isn’t true.
+# (The rumour that he was accepted wasn’t true.)
+# He really wanted to get in, but from what I've heard he's just on their waiting list.
W: ## Oh, then there’s ~ still a chance that he’ll get in.
M: I guess so.
## But even if he gets in, how is he going to pay for it?
# (Even if he gets in he still needs to find a way to pay the tuition and other costs.)
## It’s very expensive and his family isn’t wealthy.
+# (His family would like to pay, but they aren’t wealthy enough to pay the high costs.)
W: +# Well, he can always get a student loan, or maybe he’ll get a scholarship.
# (One way to pay would be to get a student loan and work part-time.)
M: If he gets a loan, it will be for a lot of money.
He will be taking on a lot of debt.
W: # Still, a degree from Stanford is worth a lot, and I’ve heard they have a lot of money for scholarships.
## (She thinks a degree from Stanford is worth a lot of money.)
# (He has a chance for a scholarship because the University has a lot of scholarship money.)
## (It’s difficult to get a scholarship.)
M: +## I wonder what he’ll do.
## If he gets in, I hope he gets a scholarship.
W: +# What will he do if he DOSEN’T get into Stanford?
## What are his other choices?
M: The only other school I’ve heard him mention is Cambridge, in England.
# (In this case, she’s being sarcastic, so she thinks it’s a great )
W: Oh, well THAT’S not a bad choice.
# (In this case, she’s being sarcastic, so she thinks it’s a great choice.)
M: 1) ## What about you? Have you heard anything?
W: 2) +## Me? I’ll tell you if you promise not to tell anyone, ok?
M: 3) ## Sure, if it’s a secret, you can trust me.
W: 4) +## I’ve been accepted into MIT on a full scholarship.
+ ## (She wants to keep her acceptance into MIT a secret.)
M: MIT? You’re joking, right?
## (He was so surprised that he thought she might be joking.)
## (He thought she was serious.)
W: No, I’m serious.
M: Why haven’t you told anyone?
W: I don’t know.
# I think I’ll wait until everyone else has heard from their choices.
# I really didn’t except to get in. (especially with a scholarship)
M: Yeah, specially when a full scholarship.
Some people will be jealous when they hear about it.
But we all know you are smart, so, it’s something you should be proud of.
W: Thanks, I’m really excited.
L05U03 2-1 Listening (Flow chart)
# A flow chart, like this one shows how a process 'begins and ends, and the stepsinbetween.
# The process can be of ~ almost any kind, from manufacturing a tire tocreating an advertisement.
+# Therefore, learning how to describe and explain the process in english is important.
+## It’s important for teachers, engineers and people who provide customer support.
## One process that we are all familiar with is our body's circulatory system.
This system provides oxygen through our body, and eliminates carbon dioxide which is a waste product.
## (It provides oxygen to the body and eliminates carbon dioxide.)
+## If something goes wrong with this system, we need to repair it quickly, or we die.
So it’s important to understand it, and keep the function properly.
## (It’s important to keep it functioning properly, or we will die.)
1) First, the most important requirement for the system to work is the supply of air.
## (The system won’t work with out supply of air.)
2) Without fresh air with sufficient oxygen, the process won’t keep us health and alive.
## (To stay healthy and alive we need fresh air with sufficient oxygen.)
3) So the process begins by breathing in air, which happens when the lungs expand and drag(x) in air.
4) # Once 'inside the lungs, oxygen in the air is exchanged for carbon dioxide in the blood.
## (Inside the lungs, oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide.)
# This 'exchange happens when blood cells release carbon dioxide and absorb oxygen.
This blood is now oxygenated blood, which means it carries oxygen.
1) (After exchanging CO2 for oxygen, oxygenated blood flows to the heart.)
2) +## (From the heart it is pumped to the rest of the body.)
3) (The carbon dioxide which was exchanged for oxygen is breathed out.)
4) +## (This happens when the lungs contract.)
To summarise, +## the process begins by inhaling air and oxygenating the blood.
The oxygenating blood in the lungs then flows back to the heart.
The CO2 which came from the blood is exhaled and the next cycle begins.
Notes that the blood in the lungs flows in a loop from the heart.
The blood which enters the loop from the heart _carries carbon dioxide.
Once the carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen, the blood continues through the loop and exits into the heart.
The oxygenated blood is then pumped to the rest of the body.
+# (The blood travels to and from the heart in a loop that begins and ends in different parts of the heart.)
+# (After the oxygenated blood flows back to the heart, it’s pumped back to the rest of the body.)
As you can see, everything depends on the flow of blood to and from the heart.
+# (The circulatory system depends on the flow of blood to and from the heart.)
So how does the heart do this?
1) First, the heart, which is a muscle, has 4 chambers.
2) +## From one chamber, blood is pumped to the lungs.
3) This is the blood that carries carbon dioxide.
4) When the oxygenated blood from the lungs comes back to the heart, it enters another camber.
This chamber is called the left atrium. (['eɪtrɪəm]心房)
From the left atrium, the oxygenated blood is pumpedintoanotherchamber, the left ventricle. (['ventrɪk(ə)l]心室)
The left ventricle thenpumps the blood into the aorta, which is the largestartery in the body. ([eɪ'ɔːtə]大动脉)
From the aorta, the oxygenated blood passesthrough a networkof smaller arteriesthroughout the entirebody, including the brain.
+# (The heart uses a network of arteries and veins to circulate blood throughout the body.)
Blood returns to the heart through a system of veins, and enters the upper right chamber, the right atrium.
Now we understand a little about the circulatory system, we can ask what needs to operate.
Of course it can’t operate without energy.
This energy is supplied by another system, the digestive system, which gets energy from food.
## (The digestive system supplies energy to the circulatory system.)
And of course, these systems need to be supported and controlled.
# Our skeletal system provides support and our muscular system provides control and movement.
+## (Our skeletal system provides physical support for our bodies.)
# Without support and movement, we couldn't' get the food that we needfor energy.
Only plants cando this because they have a completelydifferent system, which gets energy directly from the sun.
+## (Plants get energy. directly from the sun by using photosynthesis.)
To summarise, ## the human body is like a huge, complex factory.
## (Our bodies function very much like a huge complex factory.)
The language we use to describe how it functions is the same language we use to describe almost any industry progress.
The vocabulary is different, but the processes, flows and logical relationships are almostidentical. (一致的)
Think of some familiar processes in your life or job, and see if you can describe and explain it in english.
L05U03 2-2 Vocabulary (Action)
Maintain, to preserve or keep things as they are.
Our quality is excellent, so your job is to maintain our high standards and improve them if you can.
## These historic buildings are very old and need to be maintained.
(Because of economic competition, maintaining peaceful relations isn’t easy.)
(After their divorce they managed to maintain fairly good relations because of their children.)
(The house was very well maintained, eventhough it was extremely old.)
Disrupt, to course disorder or confusion.
## Smartphones have disrupted the way we live our lives.
+## Investors want to invest in companies that disrupt the way things are done.
## (Sometimes disruptive technologies change the world in ways we don’t like.)
+## (When the volcano erupted, it disrupted air travel in the region for almost two weeks.)
(Some of their profits were distributed to the most productive employees in the form of bonuses.)
Settle, to calm things down or end a conflicted disagreement.
He is too upset to think clearly, so he needs to settledown.
+## If we can’t agree, we'll have to go the court to settle our differences.
+## (With the development of agriculture, humans could settle down and formpermanent communities.)
+## (They refuse to negotiate, so I’m afraid the only way to settle the dispute will be through war.)
(They need a strong leader to bring them together and settle their differences.)
Solve, to fige it out and find the answer or solution to a problem.
The problem is difficult, so we need to find a way to solve it.
We can’t solve that problem without using a computer.
+## (He is very good at solving difficult problems, even under pressure.)
(They couldn’t solve the problem until they could clearlydefine it.)
(Once they solved the problem, they realized that there were several solutions to choose from.)
Prove, to use evidence or logic to support an idea.
The police had to release him because they couldn’t prove that he committed the crime.
The best way to prove that something can be done is to do it.
# (She wants me to buy her an expensive diamond ring to prove that I love her.)
# (She wants proof that I love her, but what does that mean: an expensive diamond ring?)
(We can’t prove the he was there unless we can find more evidence.)
+## (In mathematics, students learn how to uselogic to prove things.)
Exchange, to swapor change one thing for another.
## When we buy something, we exchange money for the product.
## In the human body, oxygen is exchanged for CO2 in the lungs.
(In a meeting two people may exchange looks by nodding heads or showing emotions.)
## (During the prisoner exchange, one of the prisoners tried to escape.)
(When they exchanged smiles, I knew we were close to an agreement.)
Cooperate, to work together or collaborate.
Instead of competing with each other, we should cooperate.
A good manager can get people to cooperate, even if they are on different teams.
(We need hime to cooperate instead of refusing to work with us.)
(He wants to do things his own way and refuses to cooperate, so we should get rid of him.)
Capture, to catch and hold something, the opposite of release.
The prisoners escaped, but they were captured within a few days.
In war, armies try to capture territory and defeat their enemies on the battlefield.
(If you are captured by the enemy, you probably won’t survive.)
# (After he was captured he was held in prison for a year before he was exchanged for another prisoner.)
(After only a short conversation, she had captured his imagination and he was hopelessly in love.)
To distribute or share, to pass around or give to others unselfishly.
One reason that company is successful is that they have a profit sharing plan.
After the earthquake, the army came and distributed food and water supplies to the survivors.
(After the earthquake it was important for people to share their food and water supplies with others.)
(Nobody wanted to share their supplies, so people started fighting.)
(His presence in the office is disruptive, so we need to get ridof him as soon as possible.)
Eliminate, to get rid off or dispose off.
Waste products must be eliminated from our bodies or we will died.
Teams were eliminated from the competition when they lost too many games.
# (All except two candidates have been eliminated, so now we need to decide which one to promote.)
(One way to eliminate corruption is to punish those people who are corrupt.)
(The government is doing its best to eliminate waste and reward conservation.)
L05U03 2-3 Dialogue (Talk about an interviewee)
M: How was the job interview?
W: She did well, but she is so unattractive.
+## I don’t think we should hire her, certainly not for a sales position.
# (The only reason given was the fact that she isn’t attractive.)
+## (She disagrees with his decision to hire the woman.)
M: Do you really think so?
+## That seems so unfair.
## Why should looks have anything to do with it?
W: ## It’s just a basic fact of life.
## Tall, beautiful people have an advantage.
M: +## Maybe so, but we don’t have to support that way of thinking.
W: +## Look, we have a business to run.
+## You want me to increase sales, right?
# (They disagree_ about weather or not looks should affect their hiring decision.)
M: +## Have ever heard of Jack Ma?
W: Sure, ## he is the founder of a huge company in China.
I believe he’s one of the richest people in the world.
M: ## He’s not good looking at all, but look how successful he is.
W: +## Yes, but he’s an exception.
+# (In what ways is Jack Ma an exception?)
+## (He is an exception because he never gave up, even when things went against him.)
M: # He faced all kinds of prejudice, but he overcame it.
+## I really admire him.
# (One of the prejudices he overcame was the prejudice against unattractive people.)
M: ## Perhaps, having to overcome obstacles like that made him stronger.
+## (The fact that he wasn’t good looking might have made him stronger.)
# Maybe he would’t have been so successful if he were good looking.
Have you though of that.
W: ## That may have been a factor, sure.
But what about advertising?
+# Look at all the money companies pay for models in advertising.
M: +## You mean the use of beautiful or strange-looking people.
W: Exactly, +## it’s all around us, because it works.
People notice it.
# (According to her, we are surrounded by advertisements that are based on appearance rather than fact.)
M: # As far as I'm concerned, it’s just a way of fooling people into buying things they may not need.
+# (According to him, many advertisement are trying to fool people into buying things they may not need.)
## It’s all based on appearance, and I don’t like it.
W: I don’t disagree with you.
+## But people don’t buy something because it’s good or bad.
# They buy something because it makes them feel good.
+# (She wants to hire people and make people feel good.)
## Their decisions are based on emotion, not reason.
+# (According to her, people make decisions based on emotions more than facts.)
M: +## Is that why you buy things?
W: Well, it depends on the product, but yes, I guess I do.
What about you?
M: ## I try to find out about a product before I buy it.
+## But in some cases, I’m not different from other people.
## I’m attracted to advertisements that get my attention.
W: That's my point.
# We want our salespeople to attract attention and make people feel good.
+# (She wants to hire people who can attract attention and make people feel good.)
M: Ok, but I’d like our company to do better.
## Let’s be creative and do something better.
W: ## I hear you, but I think you’re being naive. (to not be realistic or practical)
+## (She thinks his decision to hire the woman isn’t realistic and goes against experience.)
+# (Someone who is naive shows a 'lack of experience that often makes decisions that are not realistic.)
M: +## If you think that woman was good, then let’s give her a chance.
W: OK, I’ll give her a chance and I respect, but completely disagree with your decision.
# (She respects his decision to give the woman a chance, but she doesn’t think the woman will succeed.)
## (She disagrees with his decision to hire the woman.)
M: +## I know, and I thank you for your honest opinion.
// (‘重读) (_轻声) (x ~ x连读) (#跟读) (##听读) (+##复习时跟/听读) (xxx下划线是测试题答案) (加粗是对于我的生词/词组)
L05U03 3-1 Listening (GDP chart)
1) +## Living conditions around the world vary from country to country.
2) ## Some countries have very large economies, but the majority of their citizens are poor.
3) Other countries have smaller economies, but the majority of their citizens are NOT poor.
4) So, +# the size of a country’s economy isn’t the only the fact that determines how wealthy its citizens are.
## The size of its population is also an important factor.
Another factor is how a country’s wealth is distributed between in the rich and the poor.
# (The distribution of wealth is also an important factor that affects living conditions.)
+## (A country’s livingconditionsdepend not only on the size of its economy, (but also on how its wealth is distributed.) The size of its population is also an important factor. Another factor is how a country’s wealth is distributedbetween the rich and the poor.)
Let’s look at some examples.
This chat shows the world’s 5 largest economies in 2015.
It ranks the countries by the gross domestic product or GDP.
## The GDP is the one way of measuring the size of an economy.
# It is the total value of goods and services produced in a country in a year.
+# As you can see, according to this chat, the US and China had the largest economies.
## (In 2015, Germany had the fifth largest economy.)
1) ## According to the chart, India had the third largest economy in the word.
2) Its economy was bigger than Japan’s.
3) +# However, the average living conditions in Japan are much higher than in India.
4) One reason for this is the difference in population.
+## India has a much larger population, so its wealth isdistributed ~ among a much larger number of people.
## (One reason is that Japan’s population is much smaller than India’s.)
You can find the information by checking a country’s GPD per capita.
## Per capita means per person.
+# If two countries have the same GDP, but one country has half the number of people, its GPD per capita is twice as large.
1) +## Another important factor is how the wealth of a country is shared.
2) +## In some countries much of the wealth is concentrated in just a few people.
3) For example, +## in the US, just 5% of the population had more than 70% of the wealth!
4) # This shows that many US citizens are not wealthy despite the size of their economy.
# In fact, the wealth share held by the wealthiest 10% was more than 10 times bigger than the rest of the population.
(Much of the wealth is held by a small segment of the population.)
+## As we have seen, much of the wealth of the US is concentrated in just a few people.
10% of its population had been estimated at 75% of wealth in 2015.
In this chart, we see some comparison with other countries.
+# In contrast to the US, 10% of Japan’s population had less than half of the total wealth.
+# In China, in 2014, the estimated share of top 10% was 64%, but this number is rising.
## Russia had the highest concentration of wealth, at over 80%!
India, which has one of the world largest economies, has the largest share of the world’s poorest people.Its richest 10% have the 370 times the share of wealth than its poorest 10%.
# A major challenge for a government is to improve the living conditions of its citizens.
+## As we have seen, growing an economy isn’t enough.
Population growth and distribution of wealth are also important factors.
Improving education and developing job skills can help people move up in economy.
# With better education and training, the poor can increase their ability to get better jobs and raise their income.
However, taxes are needed to pay for social services, including health and education.
## Some countries tax the rich at a higher rate than the poor.
+## However, if taxes are too high, it can discourage investment and risk taking.
This is because ## investors won’t take risks unless the rewards are high.
So, as you can see, these are complex issues.
L04U03 3-2 Vocabulary
Silly, foolish or stupid or ridiculous, the opposite of serious.
He is beingsilly, so we should ignore him.
That's a sillyidea, so I don't think she means what she's saying.
# (He expects people to laugh when he's being silly, but I don't think it's funny.)
+## (It’s a silly proposal, so nobody is going to support it.)
+## (Don’t worry about what she said because she was just being silly.)
Amazing to be incredible, or so good as to be hard to believe, the opposite of ordinary.
That company's new products are truly amazing.
+# She gave an amazing performance, especially after all the difficulties she had to overcome.
(He was in a serious accident, so it's amazing that he is still alive.)
+## (It’s amazing what people can accomplish if they are determined.)
+## (She has an amazing voice, so I love to listen to her sing.x)
(It will be an amazing accomplishment if they can finish the project on schedule.)
Crucial, to be of extremely important or essential part, the opposite of optional.
# It’s crucial that we get them to sign the contract by the end of the week.
Getting that data is crucial for our success.
(It’s crucial that airline pilots get enough sleep before they fly.)
(We can’t do this without their help, so it’s crucial that you get them to cooperate.)
(We need her help because she has unique skills that are crucial for the success of our project.)
Impressive, to stand out and beyond forgettable in a good way.
His presentation was so impressive that we decided to hire him right the way.
They have an impressive website, but the quality of their products is pathetic.
(He made an impressiveentrance, but when he left the meeting he looked tried and defeated.)
(Their design was impressive, but the costs were much higher than we could afford, so we had to reject it.)
(She impressed everyone with her powerful speech, but we were soon disappointed by her inability to meet her goals.)
(I’m not impressed with several of his acquaintances, so I won’t recommend him for the job.)
Realistic, to be possible and and attainable. (可到达的)
+## That deadline isn’t realistic, so we need to ask for more time.
He isn’t being realistic when expect to charge hight prices for his products.
(Their company failedbecause their sales projections were unrealistic and their expenses were way too high.)
(His proposal wasn’t realistic because he doesn’t understand the details and potential risks of such a project.)
(It’s ok for you to have high expectations, but they need to be realistic or you’ll fail.)
Sincere, to be honest or trustworthy.
## I think she wasbeingsincere, so I think we cantrust her.
# Sometimes it’s very difficult to know if someone is being sincere or is just a good liar.
(He made many promise, but I don’t think he was being sincere, so we shouldn’t depend on him.)
# (I doubt if he’s being sincere, so we should protect ourselves in case he breaks his promise.)
(I thought he was being sincere, but when I looked into his background it seems that he can’t be trusted.)
Naive, overly simple or lacking experience.
+# He wants to change the word, but he is very naive, so he needs someone to help him.
## I think we can take advantage of him because he’s naive and impatient.
(She’s still young and naive, so we can’t give her too much responsibility without someone to guide her.)
(She isn’t as naive as she looks, so we should be careful not to reveal our plans until she signs the contract.)
(Internet criminals are very clever and can often foolnaive people into giving away confidential information.)
Brilliant, highly intelligent or acceptional brightness, the opposite of doll.
## There’s no doubt that he is a brilliant scientist, but he is a very poor manager.
+## It’s amazing how such a brilliant man can be so stupid around women!
(He’s brilliant but naive, so he needs someone with a lot of experience to help him.)
(The ideas in his paper were brilliant, but the quality of his writing was pathetic.)
(That’s a brilliantidea, so let’s get started as soon as possible.)
Cruel, mean, manipulative and hurtful, the opposite of kind.
He can be cruel when doesn’t like someone, so don’t expect him to be nice to you.
I was shocked by how cruel he was when he fired her.
(Some people can be really cruel, so don’t be naive or you can be hurt.)
+## (I don’t understand how people can be so cruel to animals.)
(People who are cruel to animals should be punished for their behavior.)
+# (I can never forgive him for his cruelty, so don’t ask me to meet with him ever again.)
##(Getting that data is crucial for our success.)
Clever, innovative, creative very smart.
He found a clever solution that allowed us to reduce costs.
Advertisers are very clever at getting people to buy things they don’t really need.
(They have developed a very cleverway to increase the efficiency of their sales team.)
(It appeared to be a clever idea at first, but it failed because it ignored some important details.)
(He isn’t as clever as he thinks he is, so we may be able to find a weakness in his plan.)
Skeptical, needs prove or evidence to overcome doubts, the opposite of convinced.
I’m sure they will be skeptical of our results, so we need to bring convincing evidence.
I’m skeptical that such a simple design can satisfied our requirements.
(Your ideas are impressive, but I’m still skeptical, so I need more evidence.)
(She was skeptical that we could finish the project on time, and now she has been proven right.)
(He’s skeptical that we can satisfy their needs, so he wants us to provide more details about our plan.)
L05U03 3-3 Dialogue (Won a lottery)
A: Guess what? I’ve just won a lottery, 15 million dollars!
B: You’re kidding!
# Are you sure it’s for real and there 'isn’t a mistake?
A: No, I’ve checked it and confirmed it.
## (He’s sure he won because he has confirmed it.)
B: Wow, that’s fantastic!
A: I never expected this, so now I've got to figure out what to do with it.
# (He hasn’t have enough time to think about what he’s going to do with it.)
B: Yes you do…, and be careful.
I’m telling you, everything is about to change.
A: Um, I’m still in shock, so, I have a time to think.
## (He needs enough time to figure out what to do with the money.)
(In this case, to be in a state of shock means to be so surprised and excited that one can’t think clearly.)
B: ## With all your money, what about your friends?
A: You mean you, right?
B: Sure, why not?
+## Why don’t you get me a new car?
## (He isn’t being serious, but is only joking with his friend.)
A: And then what?
+## Sure, if I start to giving things to my friends, it will never stop.
I’ve got to think.
B: One thing for sure, I have no trouble finding a girlfriend now.
A: Yeah, you’re probably right.
+## I might as well have some fun and enjoy the rich life for a while.
## (He is going to have fun and enjoy being rich for a while.)
It would be great to have a nice girlfriend.
I’ve never beensuccessful with women.
## (Many women like men with money.)
+# (They think there will be many women who will be attracted to him because of his money.)
B: What are you going to do with your job?
A: # I’ll give notice right away and finish the project that I’ve beenworking on.
## (He is going to give noticed then finish the project he’s been working on.)
(To give notice to an employer means to let them know that you’re going to quit.)
B: That’s nice.
I’m sure the company will appreciated.
A: Then I’ll take some time for myself and think about what I wanna do.
## (He’ll take some time for himself and thinks about what he wants to do.)
B: Any ideas?
A: Nothing definite. But I’ve been considering of starting my own business.
Or maybe invest in something interesting.
B: Be careful about investing.
# One of my best friends became an investor after he sold some stock in the company he was working for.
+## He is really smart, but he got fooled into investing a lot of money into a company that went bankrupt.
## (The company his friend invested in went bankrupt, so he lost his money.)
He ended up losing his entire investment.
A: What happen then?
B: His wife divorced him and took most of his assets with her.
## (His friend’s marriage ended in divorce.)
So now he has to work again.
## So even smart people can be fooled.
A: ## Well, I’m in no hurry, so I’ll be careful.
+## I think the first thing I’ll do is buy a nice house and help my parents.
# They've worked hard all their lives, but are still barely able to survive on what they have.
B: Hm, that sounds like a good plan.
What ever you do, don’t let this go to you head. (to become self-centred)
# (In this case, to go to one’s head means to let his sudden wealth make him think he is better then others.)
Try not to lose who you are.
A: Don’t worry, I won’t.
I know what’s your mean.
L05U03 4-1 Listening (Force)
1) # There are several fundamental forces that hold our universe together.
2) One of these, of course, is gravity, the force between object that have mass.
3) ## Another important force is the electromagnetic force.
4) # The electromagnetic force is responsible for chemical reactions.
Without it, there will be no atoms and molecules.
Upon to a couple of hundred years ago, very little was known about this force.
Learning about the electromagnetic force and how to use it was a major step-forward.
It revolutionise communication, transportation and manufacturing.
## Imagine what life would be like without electricity.
The electromagnetic force has two parts, the electrical force and magnetic force.
The electrical force is the force between electrically charge partials, such as electrons and protons.
Electrical charges attract or repel each other with the force that depends on the distance between them.
The magnetic force is the force between magnetic poles, such as the north and south pole.
In fact, the earth is like a large bar magnetic with the north and south pole.
Many animals use the earth magnetic field to navigate during their migrations.
We can also see this magnetic field when we use a campus.
Why does the earth have a magnetic field.
# Many scientists believe that the Earth magnetic filed is due to the Earth’s rotation.
# Deep inside the Earth is a solid iron core, surrounded by a liquid metal 'outer cole.
The moving electric currents
The earth’s magnetic field is important, because it protects us from a solar wind.
The solar wind is a current of charge particles coming at us from the sun.
# When the solar wind nears the Earth, the Earth's magnetic field deflectsit away.
This protects the Earth from the radiation, which can be dangerous to life.
It also protests the saddle lights that use for communication.
# Scientists now believethat the Earth’s magnetic field is about toreverse.
This is called magnetic field reversal.
## Every two hundred thousand to three hundred thousand years the Earth’s magnetic field reverses.
In other words, the north and south magnetic poles switch places.
# This has happened many times in Earth’s history, but it has been happening more lately.
Recent research provides evidence that there have been five magnetic reversals during the past five hundred thousand years.
## The most recent event happened approximately 41 thousand years ago.
Recent studies have found that the Earth’s magnetic field has weakened about 5% per decade.(10 years)
## At its current rate, the next reversal could happen within the next century.
1) Some people worry about the effects of a magnetic field reversal.
2) ## They think there is a possibility that it could cause many problems.
3) # For example, without a magnetic field, communications could be disrupted.
4) Birds and other forms of life could become confused and get lost.
Another effect would be an increase of some forms of cancer, especially skin cancer.
## (An increase in radiation causes some forms of cancer.)
This would be because of an increase in the amount of radiation absorbed by our bodies.
The possibility that a field reversal would be an extinction event is very low.
There is very little historical evidence to show that the previous reversals have caused extinctions.
# Humans have been on Earth for millions of years, during which there have been many reversals.
Therefore, scientists believe that any changes would be temporary.
Another theory is that the Earth outer layer could rotate around the liquid middle outer core that makes the most of the Earth.
So in the next reversal, continents could shift positions from north to south.
Imagine when that happened, Austria would be in the north hemisphere.
## With so many theories, how can we know what to believe?
This is important because some of events require us to act well in advance.
Otherwise, it would be too late to prevent a cataciphy(x).
This underlines the importance of getting reliable information back by strong evidence.
L05U03 4-2 Vocabulary
Resume, to continue or start again after a pause.
# After a short ~ interruption, our work resumed and we worked for another hour.
# Work on the project resumed once we passed the safety inspection.
(When we lost electricity everything shut down, but a few minutes later the power returned and we resumed our work.)
Interrupt, to stop something in progress.
# I hate to be interrupted when I’m working, but sometimes it’s necessary.
It’s difficult to conversation with her because she always interrupts.
# (Be careful not to interrupt the boss when he’s speaking.)
Reconsider, to reassess or think again about changing something.(再评价)
I was planning to vote against to him, but after hearing him speak, I’m going to reconsider.
I didn’t want to hire her at first but then I reconsidered and offered her the job.
(I’m glad I reconsidered your plan because it’s turning out to a big successes.)
Conclude, to reach a decision, to end something or summarise the main points.
To conclude my presentation, here is summary of my recommendations.
## After hearing the arguments for and against the project, we have reached a conclusion. (赞成与反对)
## (We have concluded that there are too many risks, so we’re going to cancel the project.)
## (In conclusion, I think this new pesticide isn’t safe for the environment.)
Anticipate, to think it in advance, to predict what’s ahead.
I won the game because it’s easy to anticipate my opponents next move.
He try to anticipate what we are going to do, but he was completely wrong so he lost.
(Even though he tried to anticipate our attack, we were able to overwhelm his defences.)
Permanent, to be fixed or unchanging, the opposite of temporary.
## He plans to stay there permanently.
## He has decided to become a permanent resident of China.
(Humans lived as nomadsuntil they decided to settle down and build permanent communities.)
Temporary, only lasting for a short time, the opposite of permanent.
## We can only offer him a temporaryposition in the company.
This isn’t the kind of job he wants, but it’s okay if something temporary until he can find something better.
(That company places people in part-time, temporary positions.)
Definite, well defined, precise, certain, unchanging.
We can’t begin the project until you give us more definite schedule.
We can’t give you a definite answer until we get more information.
(We don’t know their exact location, but they are definitely in this general area.)
Obvious, easy to see, stands out.
## Of the job candidates we interviewed, he was the obvious choice.
## It’s obvious that he can’t afford to buy that house.
## (From her facial expression, it was obvious that she really disliked him.)
Trivial, of a little or no importance, insignificance.
It’s a trivial detail, so there’s no need to worry about it.
# Those problems are not trivial, so we need to find a solution.
# ('He thinks it’s a trivial matter, but I think it’s going to cause big problems if we ignore it.)
L05U03 4-3 Dialogue (Argument about investment)
W: ## I just heard what you did.
## You did it without consulting me.
+# (She’s angry because he make an investment without consulting her.)
M: # Yes, I talked to them and decided to invest more money.
+# I didn’t have time to 'consult with you, and I trust them.
W: ## That’s our money, not yours.
We’ve been saving it to buy a house.
+## (They’ve been saving money to buy a house.)
# You had no right to make that decision without letting me know.
+## How can I trust you.
M: 1) # Look, it was an opportunity I couldn’t resist.
I’m sure it’s going to be ok.
W: 2) No, it isn’t.
+## It’s a stupid investment and it’s going to fail.
3) I really hate you now.
+## (She says she hates him because he has disappointed her by breaking his promise.)
M: 4) +## That’s a really strong word for simply disagreeing.
## Why can we disagree without becoming so emotional?
W: ## We aren’t just disagreeing!
+# (Their disagreement isn’t the point.)
## You’ve broken your promise again!
+# (Her point is that he didn’t keep his promise.)
+## (She’s upset because he has broken his promise again.)
# I can’t trust you anymore, especially when you keep doing stupid things that effect ‘me.
+## (She doesn’t trust him anymore.)
M: # You say I’m being stupid, but it's just that we don't agree.
W: ## No, that’s not the point.
## You’re not listening.
# You said you wouldn’t do anything unless we both agreed.
+## And look what you’ve done.
## Your promises are just empty words.
+## I really despise you now.
M: ## Well, what should we do?
## If you keep talking like that, we hadbetter break up.
W: Yes we should.
I’ve had enough.
# I don’t want to see you anymore, and I don’t want you to even contact me.
M: Sure, if that’s what you really want.
+# But I want you to know that I haven’t been lying to you.
W: ## Don’t say anything more.
## I don’t want to hear it.
+# You’re fool and you can’t even see what you’re doing.
M: ## Hi, I’m calling to apologise.
# (He wants to apologise and hopefully save their relationship.)
Did you get my flowers?
W: Yes, but I told you not to call me.
M: Yes, I know, but I don’t want our relationship to end like this.
We’ve been through too much together.
+## Let’s give it another try.
W: I’m sorry.
I think it’s too late.
+## (She thinks it’s too late to save their relationship because she can’t take any more of his broken promises.)
This was the last straw.
M: Please give me another chance.
You were right about everything.
I’ll try to get the money back.
W: When you get the money back, you can call me again.
## (He needs to get the money back before he can call her again.)
If you don’t, you can pay me what you owe me and then leave me alone.
M: Ok, I’ll get it back.
And I’ll do anything to get you back in my life.
W: I’ll think about it.